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ARGARET A. MURRAY 



THE LIBRARY 
OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 
LOS ANGELES 

FROM THE LIBRARY 

OF 



ELI SOBEL 



ELEMENTARY EGYPTIAN GRAMMAR 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2014 



https://archive.org/details/elementaryegyptimarg 



ELEMENTARY 
EGYPTIAN GRAMMAR 



BY 

MARGARET A. MURRAY 



FOURTH EDITION 



LONDON 
BERNARD QUARITCH 
ii, Grafton Street, Bond Street, W. 
1920 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 
The Hieroglyphic Signs. 

Alphabetic signs. . . 4 

Syllabic signs ... 4 

Phonetic complement . . 5 

Word-signs ... 6 

Determinatives ... 7 

Written characters . . 8 

CHAPTER II. 
Formation of Sentences. 
Complete, or Verbal, Sen- 
tence . 
Simple Nominal Sentence 
Compound Nominal Sen 

tence . . . .12 
Order of words . . .13 
Emphasis . . . • '5 

CHAPTER III. 
Pronouns. 

Personal, Suffixes . .16 

,, Absolute . .17 

,, Reflexive . . 19 

Demonstrative . . • T9 

CHAPTER IV. 
Substantives. 
Gender . . . .22 
Number . . . .23 



CHAPTER V. 
The Genitive. 



Direct Genitive . 
Inairect Genitive 



CHAPTER VI. 
Adjectives. 
Derived from prepositions 
Degrees of comparison 

CHAPTER VII. 
Numerals. 
Cardinal Numbers 
Ordinal Numbers 



CHAPTER IX. 

Prepositions. 



Simple 
Compound 



CHAPTER X. 
Conjunctions. 



CHAPTER VIII. 
Adverbs . . . .35 



Enclitic 
Absolute 



vi 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

CHAPTER XI. 
Partici.es. 



Emphatic . . . 44 

Interrogative . . -45 

Negative . . . -47 

Relative . . . . 50 

Conditional . . . 51 

CHAPTER XII. 
Verbs. 

Classes of Verbs. . . 52 

Conjugation . . ■ 54 

Sedemef. . . .55 

Sedemnef . . -55 

Sedemynef . . -56 

Sedernkheref . . -57 

Pseudo-participle . -57 
Compounds with auxiliary 

verbs . . . .58 



Infinitive 


PAGE 
. 60 


Sedemt-ef 


. 64 


Passive . 


* t 5 


Participles 


■ 6 S 


Relative forms 


. 66 


Verbal Adjective 


. 67 


Impersonal form 


. 68 


Causative 


. 68 


P'uture . . . 


. 68 



CHAPTER XIII. 

Notes on Syntax. 
Absolute substantive . . 69 
Apposition and co-ordination 70 
Emphasis . . . .71 

Exercises . . -72 

Vocabulary . . .78 



INTRODUCTION. 



THIS little Grammar is intended only for absolute 
beginners, who wish to obtain some knowledge of 
the Egyptian language without any intention of 
doing any original work in it. To those who wish to 
take up the language thoroughly and scientifically, 
there is always Prof. Erman's Egyptian Grammar > 
which contains all that a student can require. My 
aim has been to produce a book which shall be to 
Egyptian what the ordinary school elementary Greek 
grammar is to Greek. I am told that by doing so I 
shall lower the standard of scholarship in Egyptian, 
but I confess that I fail to see the force of the 
argument. It has never- been found that elementary 
Greek grammars, or instructing little boys in the 
elements of Greek, has lowered the scholarship in 
Greek, and why should it do so in Egyptian ? On 
the contrary, I think that an elementary Egyptian 
grammar will increase the interest in the Egyptian 
language and literature by increasing that small 
section of the public who have felt the charm and 
fascination of that most ancient civilization, by show- 
ing them the firm foundation on which our knowledge 
of the language is built, and by letting them see the 
difficulties which have to be overcome, and the ease 



Vlll 



INTRODUCTION 



with which the great masters of the language surmount 
the obstacles. 

In the study of all ancient languages there are 
always two classes of people ; the large majority who 
know enough to follow a translation, appreciating the 
difficulties and enjoying the beauties ; and the small 
minority, to whom a new grammatical form, or a 
newly found exception to an established rule, is an 
absolute joy. 

My Grammar is not intended for the latter class, 
but only for those who, knowing nothing, wish to 
know a little, in order to appreciate better the work 
of the great hieroglyphic scholars of our time. It 
contains nothing original, being founded entirely on 
Prof. Erman's Grammar ; even the examples he gives 
in illustration of grammatical rules are copied, as 
being the best that could be found for that purpose. 
The twelve years' experience which I have had as a 
teacher of elementary hieroglyphs has shown me that 
a grammar of this kind is needed, and this is my only 
reason for publishing it. 

My sincere thanks are due to Dr. Walker, for 
suggestions and help in the Grammar ; to Mr. and 
Mrs. Hayter, for much assistance in simplifying the 
arrangement of the book ; and to Prof. Flinders 
Petrie, for the kind and generous help which he has 
given me in this, as well as in all my other Egypto- 
logical work. 



CHAPTER I. 



THE HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS. 

Egyptian Hieroglyphs were in use from B.C. 5000, or 
even earlier, to A.p. 300, in all for nearly 5 500 years. 
The origin of the writing was the same as that of all 
primitive nations, namely pictures, but unlike other 
nations the original forms were kept up for all 
sculptured monuments, until the very end. Side by 
side with the hieroglyphs, however, there was evolved 
a running hand used for ordinary writing, in which the 
picture signs were abbreviated and reduced till they 
lost almost all likeness to the originals from which 
they were derived. This running script is called 
Hieratic. It developed later on into the writing 
which is known as Demotic or Enchorial ; and finally 
in the Ptolemaic period, when the Greek influence 
was at its height in Egypt, and the ancient knowledge 
and understanding of the hieroglyphs was dying out, 
it became the custom to write Egyptian in Greek 
letters, thus retaining the ancient language in a 
modern writing. This hybrid was called Coptic, and 
died out as a spoken language only in the 17th 



THE HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS 



century, though it is used in the liturgy of the Coptic 
churches in Egypt to this day. 



Hieroglyphic. 


Coptic. 






nrfOYTe 


= God. 


Pa iieter 


Pnoute 




\ 


AfTOK 


= 1. 


ymk 


anok 





The hieroglyphic signs are pictures of human 
figures, animals, birds, and the common objects of 
daily life among the people, and in their early forms 
they throw great light on the civilisation of that 
distant time. The writing is usually from right to left 
(this is invariably the case in hieratic and demotic), 
but sometimes for decorative reasons the hieroglyphs 
are written from left to right. They can also be 
written in vertical columns. The rule is to read 
towards the faces of the animals and birds. For 
convenience sake, hieroglyphs are always printed from 
left to right. The words are written as much as 
possible in square groups for the sake of symmetry ; 

For this reason many signs can be 



□ 



written either vertically or horizontally ; ex. »-=» or 
jj , <— »•*-. or | Many sounds also have two signs, one 
vertical and one horizontal ; ex. ^ or <§. U, or 
m. Occasionally the spelling is sacrificed to 



THE HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS 



3 



symmetry ; ex. Khetef instead of Kheft, 

as the former makes the neater group. 

The reading of the hieroglyphs was first deciphered 
by Champollion in 1822 from a study of the Rosetta 
Stone. He then discovered that the words which 
he was able to transliterate had their equivalents in 
Coptic, and that the language which had baffled so 
many scholars was the ancient form of a language 
well known to Orientalists. The foundation then of 
our reading of hieroglyphs is the knowledge of Coptic. 

There are no vowels in Egyptian. The signs *^^, 

(J, - — 0, are properly consonants ; they are here 

transliterated a, y, a and u, as the scientific trans- 
literation is often a great stumbling-block to beginners. 
Groups of consonants like sdm, ntr, htp, are made 
pronounceable by the insertion of a short e between 
the letters, sedem, neter, hetep, but it must be re- 
membered that this e is quite conventional, and is not 
indicated in the hieroglyphs. The student is strongly 
advised to adopt Prof. Erman's transliteration as soon 
as he becomes a little familiar with the Egyptian script. 
Hieroglyphs are divided into four classes : — 

1. Alphabetic. 

2. Syllabic. 

3. Word-signs. 

4. Determinatives. 

Note. — Mr. Griffith gives the name Phonograms to I and 2. 
The alphabetic signs are Uniliteral Phonograms ; the syllables are 
Bifiteral or Triliteral- Phonograms, according to the number of letters 
which they contain. 



THE HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS 



I. An alphabetic sign represents only one sound. 
They are used as in all languages for spelling out 
words. No true vowels are known, for Egyptian was 
written, like Hebrew and other Oriental languages, 
in consonants. 



Hiero- 
glyph. 



Translitera- 
tion. 



Erman. 



a (aleph) 



* Q 


a (ayiii) 


c 


or@ 


u 


IV 


J 


b 


b 


□ 


P 


P 




f 


f 




VI. 


fit 


WVAAAA Or ^ 


n 


n 




r 


r 


ra 


h 


h 


I 


h 





Hiero- 
glyph. 



Translitera- 
tion. 

kh 



sh 



Erman. 



w 



k 

g 
t 

th 
d 

z (as in azure) 



Note.— Words beginning with [} are often written without that 
letter, e.g. ^ for \ 

2. A syllabic sign represents two or more conso- 
nantal sounds :— 

Ex. i=5 men, CZZD per, ^ klieper, nezem. 

* These letters are transliterated with a vowel, but they should 
properly be consonants. Aleph and ayin are shown by the Coptic to 

be aspirates, and the U is a W. 



THE HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS 



5 



Egyptian words are generally written partly in 
alphabetic and partly in syllabic signs. Ex. 



sma (lit. s-ma), To slay ; N^ 1 ^ khent'i (lit. khen-t-'i), 
A statue. 

The number of syllabic signs is very great, and 
they can be learnt only by practice. The Egyptians 
very frequently made use of a syllabic sign in addition 
to spelling out the syllable in alphabetic characters. 

Ex - J Ik ba (lit b ~ ba ' a) > A soul ' D K V\ 

pehti (lit. p-h-peh-t-i), Strength; ® J ^ khau (lit 

kh-kha-a-ii), Night ; "^T g ^ ^ hentasu (lit. 

h-hen-n-t-ta-a-su-u), A lizard; JS), |, D, 
^, being syllables. 

With many syllabic signs the last letter of the 
syllable is written out. This letter is called the 
Phonetic Complement; it is not intended to be pro- 
nounced separately, but merely indicates to the reader 

how the syllable should end. In the word * — i 

kern, Black, the ? i reads kem, and the word could 
very well be written with the one sign only, but it is 
customary to write the m after it, though the 
word still remains kem and not kemem. In signs 
which have more than one phonetic value, e.g. ^, 
which may be :«khem, or kherp, or aba, the Phonetic 



6 



THE HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS 



Complement shows which value is to be used ; thus : 

^ se ^ mn > ^ <= Q > kh- er P> ^ - <*ba. Sometimes 

the letter used for the Phonetic Complement is not 
the last, but is the most characteristic of the word ; e.g. 

| ^> us, To command, where the first letter ^ u is 

the Phonetic Complement ; J heqa, Ruler, where the 

middle letter A q is the Phonetic Complement, 
Sometimes, in order to make a symmetrical group, 
the two last letters of a triliteral syllable arc written 

out ; e.g. ^ < ^ > kJierp, To lead ; J nefer, 

Beautiful. 

Syllabic signs originated as pictures of the object, 
and were afterwards used merely to represent the 
combination of letters of which they are formed. 

Ex. ^ her means in the first instance a Face, and is 
often used in that sense, but it is also used as a 
syllabic sign where the combination h and r are 
required, as in ^ heryt, Terror. So also 

khet, which originally meant a Branch, is used as a 
syllable where kh and t are needed, as in ^p'** neklit 
(lit n-kht-kh-t), Strength. 

3. A word-sign is the picture of an object used 
as the word for that object ; e.g. ^1 the picture of a 
child means Child, O the picture of the sun means 
Sun, y the plan of a house means House. Word- 



THE HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS 7 

signs are difficult to distinguish at first, as a sign is 
often used as a syllable or as a determinative, as well 
as a word-sign. As a rule, however, a single sign 
which represents a whole word is followed by an 
upright stroke | (see below). 

4. A determinative is a picture of the object which 
follows a word. It is not pronounced, and is written 
merely as a guide to the reader that he may dis- 
tinguish the meaning of a word at a glance. 

Ex.- S Jjj^ -^js^ thesem, " Dog," is followed by 

the picture of a dog. ^ ^Js^ 1ML ^ e / au > " Snake," is 

followed by the picture of a snake. D pes, " To 

cook," is followed by the picture of fire. There are, 
however, a great many words which cannot be ex- 
pressed pictorially ; these are followed by the picture 

of a roll of papyrus, | or <-^-i, which is the sign of 

the Abstract, and which shows that the word can be 
expressed in writing though not in a picture. Ex. 

< ^ > I rekh x " To know." (j ^ yp, " To reckon." 

The upright stroke, which follows word-signs and 
all words written with one sign only, is a special kind 
of determinative, and is merely a guide to the reader 
that the preceding sign represents the entire word. 

Ex. ^ du, "Hill;" re, "Mouth;" £p sa, "Back." 

The stroke is often used -with a picture determinative. 

Ex. "j vier, "Canal;" k^'h "Slave;" j 

se, " Man." The feminine ending t (see p. 23) was 



8 



THE HIEROGLYPHIC SIGNS 



lost very early in pronunciation, but was continued in 
the written language ; therefore many feminine words 
take the upright stroke, as the / was not considered a 

part of the word. Ex. ^ khast, " Foreign country;" 

j~ ^ renpet> "Year;" ® ^ net, "City." The stroke is 
sometimes used to emphasize a determinative. 

For the determinative of the plural, see p. 24. 

A few words take no determinative. 

Ex. (] ^ jru, " It is ; " -eao- yr, " To do ; " 
ur, " Great ; " ° l '" = ^ zed, " To say." 

THE WRITING OF THE SIGNS. 
A simple form is used for writing the hieroglyphs, 
especially the human figures and birds. The alphabet 
and some of the commonest of the syllables and 
determinatives are given here. 

k 1 ■->:$ J ° ^ k V 

aa^a <rr> jTJ j[ © * 5 *-=* P —*— <=sn 

A ZS « 8=3 <=f^ ^ ^ ^ 



THE WRITING OF THE SIGNS 



9 



i i ft s & ° 

The signs must be kept quite upright, and should 
be written with a rather thick pen. When proficient 
the student should then practise writing them in the 
opposite direction, from right to left, thus : — 

&'& A d ft k * & 



( io ) 



CHAPTER II. 



FORMATION OF SENTENCES. 



THERE are three forms of sentence in Egyptian : 

{i) The Verbal Sentence. 

(2) The Simple Nominal Sentence. 

(3) The Compound Nominal Sentence. 

(1) The Verbal Sentence. The name Verbal is 
given to this kind of sentence, as in it the verb 
occupies the principal position at the beginning of 
the sentence, preceding the subject. The order of 
words is as follows : — 

I. Verb. 2. Subject. 3. Object. 



Ex.: 



VERB. 



SUBJECT. 



OBJECT. 






sedetn 



sekht'i 



kheru 



Hears 



the peasant 



a voice. 



mem 
Loved 



he 



su 
him. 



THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE 



1 1 



VERB. 



SUBJECT. 




khems 
Bend 



thou 



ek 



(2) The Simple Nominal Sentence. In Egyptian, 
as in many Oriental languages, a sentence is often 
formed without any verb, but is complete in itself. 
This is not possible in English, though a secondary 
clause may sometimes be formed as a Simple Nominal 
sentence to avoid the repetition of a verb ; e.g. " I am 
from the town, you from the country," " A. is a rich 
man, B. a poor man." In. these two instances the 
second clauses, " You from the country," and " B. 
a poor man," are Nominal Sentences. The name 
Nominal is given to this kind of sentence because 
the subject is always a Noun or an Absolute Pronoun 
(pp. 17, 18). 

In Egyptian the missing verb is always some form 
of the verb To be. 

The order of words is : 



The subject is either a Noun or an Absolute pronoun 
(see pp. 17, 18) ; the predicate may be a Substantive, 
an A djective, or a Prepositional phrase. 



1. Subject. 



2. Predicate. 



Ex. 



SUBJECT. 



PREDICATE. 





Ynuk neb ymat 

I [am] the lord of graciousness. 



12 



FORMATION OF SENTENCES 



SUBJECT. 

ren - ek 
Name thy 



[is] 



i 

O I 



Deqer 
Fruits 



neb 
all 



[are]. 



PREDICATE. 

nefer 
beautiful. 

<£> I I I 

her khetu-ef 
upon its trees. 



(3) The Compound Nominal Sentence. The 

Compound Nominal Sentence is so called because it 
is formed upon the model of the Simple Nominal 
Sentence (i.e. with the subject preceding), but with a 
verb inserted. The order of the words is : 

I. Subject. 2. Verb. 

The forms of the verb used are : 

(a) with intransitives and passives, the pseudo- 

participle (p. 57). 

(b) with transitives, ^ her with infinitive. 



Intransitive Verbs, 
subject. 



yau 
Old age 



hau 
advances. 



THE ORDER OF WORDS 



13 



SUBJECT. 

-0 [ 

yb-ef 
Heart his 

Transitive Verbs, 
subject. 



yhu 
Childishness 



pehti 
Strength 



VERB. 

an 
is glad. 



her man 
upon renewing (i.e. is 
renewed). 

her aq 
upon diminishing 



(i.e. Strength diminishes). 

The difference in the formation of sentences adds 
variety to the style in a long piece of prose or in a 
poem, and prevents monotony. 

THE ORDER OF WORDS. 
The sentence is divided into two parts. 

a. The first part contains verb, subject, direct and 

indirect object. 
y8. The second part contains specifications of time 
and space. 



FORMATION OF SENTENCES 



In the first part of a Verbal sentence the order of 
words is as follows : 

1. Verb. 

2. Subject. 

3. Direct object. 

4. ' Indirect object. 



en byk-ef The King gave gold to his 
servant. 

When the object, either direct or indirect, is a 
pronoun, it will precede the subject if the subject is 
a substantive. 

Rule 1. A pronoun, whether subject or object, is 

always put next to the verb. 
Rule 2. The pronominal suffix always precedes the 

absolute pronoun (p. 17). 





erdyn n-y ni-sut neb The 



King gave me gold. 




***** "^3* ii? erdyn su 



ni-sut en byk-ef The King gave it to his 
servant. 




erdyn n-y su ni-sut The 



King gave it to me. 




erdyn-ef n-y su He gave 



it to me. 



EMPHASIS 



IS 



Emphasis consists in placing before the sentence a 
word" to which it is desired to attract attention; the 
word is afterwards resumed by a pronoun in the 
sentence. This is very frequently done contrary to 
our general usage, the word. King, for instance, being 
constantly emphasized in this way. 

Ex. |J(l^^D^J^|ljL^ hest-y peh-es pet 
My praise, it reached heaven. 

<=2= \ Ji^ P khast nebt rutn-y er-es, 
yu yrn-y hed ym-es Every country to 
which I went (lit. I went to it), I was a 
hero in it 

The auxiliary verbs % ° ahan and un 

A AAAAAA AAAAAA 

sometimes stand before the emphasized word. 

fl AAAAAA A AAWA £^ AAAAAA 1 I JlV ^ 

en nt-sut byt menyn-ef Then the majesty 
of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, 
he died. 



I I . I P unyn hem-ef yb-ej ' ua er dut her-es 

Then his majesty, his heart was sad con- 
cerning it. 



( i<5 ) 



CHAPTER III. 

PRONOUNS. 

Personal. 

There are two kinds of personal pronouns : 

1. The suffixed. 

2. The absolute. 

I. Suffixes. 

These pronouns are suffixed to the verb or the 
noun to which they belong, and are written after 
the determinative. They are employed as subject, as 
possessive, or in cases governed by a preposition. 



Singular. 

1 per. mas. 

fern. 

2 per. mas. 

fern. 

3 per. mas. 

fern. 

Plural. 

1 per. mas. 
and fem. 

2 per. mas. 
and fem. 

3 per. mas. 
and fem. 



Translitera- Meaning. Governed 
tion. Subject. Possessive, by prep. 



y 


I 


my 


[to] me 


y 


I 


my 


[to] me 


ek 


thou 


thy 


[to] thee 


eth 


thou 


thy 


[to] thee 


*f 


he 


his 


[to] him 


es 


she 


her 


[to] her 


en 


we 


our 


[to] us 


tfien 


you 


your 


[to] you 


sen 


they 


their 


[to] them 



ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS 17 

Ex. As subject, ^jj mer-ef He loves. 
As possessive, ^ yb-ef His heart. 
Governed by prep., "^"^ ^. zed en-ef 

ni-sut (seten) The King speaks to him 
(lit. speaks to him the King). 

2. Absolute. 

(a) The absolute pronoun stands alone as in 
English. 

Ex. " His mother took him to the play," where 
" him " stands quite alone. It is usually employed as 
the object of the sentence, though on rare occasions 
it is found as the subject. 

Singular. Transliteration. Meaning. 

,stpe r„d m fS: M »* 

2nd pers. masc. s==* ^ thu thee 

fern. ' 1 then thee 

3rd pers. masc. ^ ^ su him 

fem. p \\ or p ^ si or set her 



Plural. 



1st -pers. masc. 
and fem. 



en us 



2nd pers. masc. = ^ ou 

and fem. Ill 

3rd pers, masc. f| or ™ them 

and fem. Mil III 



ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS 



Ex. ^ gemn-ef uy He found me. 

erdy-ek su Thou gavest it. 



{b) Another and later form of the absolute pronoun 
is used for emphasis. It is always the subject of the 
sentence and occurs only in the Simple and Compound 
Nominal Sentences. With the exceptions of the first 
person singular and plural, it is regularly formed by the 
syllable ^ ent followed by the possessive suffixes. 
Singular. 



1st pers. masc. 
and fem. 

2nd pers. masc. 



fem. ^ 



ynuk 
entek 



thou 



enteth thou 



3rd pers. masc. 

fem. ™f 

Plural. 

1st pers. masc. fj ™ 

and fem. 1 I I I 

2nd pers. masc. » 

and fem. ^ I M 



entef he 
entes she 

ynen we 
entthen you 
entsen they 



3rd pers. masc. H or ~™ 

and fem. ^ I I I I a I I 

Mote — Each of these pronouns has in it an inherent Q ; see 

/vww 

"Emphatic Particles." 

Ex. ^p-t ^ I entsen seshem neter da They 

lead the great god. 



REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS 



I 9 



3. Reflexive. 

The reflexive, is formed as in English by the 
combination of the word for "self" with the 
possessive pronouns. 
Singular. 

2nd pers. masc. "vz^ 



1st pers. masc. 

fem. 



fern. 



3rd pers. masc. |1 



fem. 

Plural. 

1st pers. masc. 

and fem. 
2nd pers. masc. 

and fem. 
3rd pers. masc. 

and fem. 



zesy 
zesy 
zesek 
■zeseth 
zesef 
zeses 

zesen 

zesthen 

zessen 



myself 
myself 
thyself 
thyself 
himself 
herself 

ourselves 

yourselves 

themselves 



neter da kfieper zesef I [am] the great god who creates 
(lit. creating) himself. 



Demonstratives. 

A. Singular, 
masc. ^ pen ) 



this 



Plural. 
ypen 



fem. 



ten 



these 



ypten 



20 DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN'S 



A. Singular. Plural. 

masc. ° pef\ 

~ that ^^i 5 nefa those 

fern. ief) ^ ^ 

These forms follow their substantive. 

Ex. ^ ^ ^ titer pen This canal. 

Instead of A and Q D ° ypten, the forms 

or w« ^« are used (see D). 

B □ ^ pit (lit. This) (see p. 60). 

It always follows its substantive and is indeclinable. 
It is used — 

1. in sentences in which no verb occurs, where it is 

translated as " It is " or " That is." 
Ex. © □ ^ Ra pu It is-Ra (lit. Ra this). 

2. occasionally after the sedem-ef form of the verb 

(p. 55), to denote a condition attained. 
Ex. [When you find this or that in him] 

|1 "j* □ ^ senb-ef pu then he is well. 

3. as a vocative in ceremonial address. 
Ex. m □ ^ Pepy pu O Pepy. 

4. in apposition. 

□ ^ /wwna ^ ^]^^ r^^i Amuhiensky heqa 
pu en Tenu Amuinenshy, prince of Tennu. 



DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS 21 

C. Another demonstrative pronoun, which occurs in 
the later period of the language, is always placed 
before the substantive, and is almost equivalent to 
our definite article. 

Singular. Plural (rare). 



mi, and ^ na, are used as 
demonstrative pronouns. They precede the noun, 
with which they are connected by the possessive 
particle en. 

Ex. ^ — m \ N si nen m sekkti These 

peasants (lit. This of peasants). 

AAAA^^^j 1 ^ j nu en neteru These 

gods. 

««« ^ ^ ^ ''"('"' j na en S em ^ ut 
These wicks. 



( 22 ) 



CHAPTER IV. 

SUBSTANTIVES. 

Gender. 

Substantives are either masculine or feminine. 

A. Masculine nouns are occasionally distinguished 

by an ending ^ u ; usually, however, there is no 
distinguishing mark. 

Ex. ^~ | mer Canal. 
neb Lord. 
Those with the ending u are — 

1. Proper names. 

IS /WW>1 A 

Ex. (] Q ^ YfiP" Anubis. 

( ® \ ^ \] Kkufu Khufu. 

2. Nouns derived from verbs and adjectives. 

Ex. ^ ^ ^ hum A pauper, from hur, 
Poor. 

P ^ -A ^ shemsu A follower, from sltems, 
To follow. 

B. Feminine nouns invariably end in <= t. 



\.merhet Ointment. 



SUBSTANTIVES 23 
They can be divided into five classes : 

1. The naturally feminine ; ex. ^ ^fj hemt Woman. 

2. Various inanimate objects which are conceived 

as feminine ; ex. ZI\ nest Throne, ^Tj ? ^ ? 
uat Road. 

3. Collectives ; ex. ! dshat Multitude. 

4. Neuter expressions Hi 

5. Abstract conceptions. 

Note. — A few masculine nouns end in a, e.g. [j ^ ^ yt Father. 
The 5, — in this word appears to be a kind of .determinative. 

Number. 

The Egyptians recognized a singular, dual, and 
plural. 

The DUAL, which is rarely used, is formed by an 
ending \v 1 joined to the masc. ^ u \\ tti) or the 
fern. ^ / ^ ti). It is not always written out, but is 
to be read notwithstanding. 

There are two methods by which the dual is 
indicated : 

1. By repetition of the sign. This occurs solely 
with words written with a word-sign. 

Ex. ' " taui Two lands. 

merti Two eyes. 



24 SUBSTANTIVES 
2. By repetition of the determinative : 

Ex. ° ® H jj^ tekhenui Two obelisk?. 

o o 

rf ^ a/? Two limbs. 

The PLURAL has an ending ^ u attached to the 

substantive. It is not always written out, but can be 
indicated in four different ways. 

1. By repeating* three times a word written with a 
word-sign. 

Ex. C j' = | C: | neteru Gods. 

I | | P eru -Houses. 

2. By repeating the determinative three times. 

Ex- 1 AAA neteru Gods ' 

i ° 

3. By the plural determinative (II, 1, o, or 000 

following the word-sign standing alone. 

Ex. i neteru Gods, 
i 1 

1 ' peru Houses. 
Ill 

perut Fruits. 

000 

4. By the plural determinative following the de- 
terminative of the word. 

Ex. H <=> % ^ seru Princes. 



* The method of indicating the plural by the repetition of a sign 
is used in English in certain abbreviations, e.g. MS.= a manuscript, 
MSS. = manuscripts ; p. = page, pp. = pages. 



SUBSTANTIVES 



25 



In feminine words the plural sign is written after 
the t , but is pronounced before it (ut). 

Ex. ^ I J ^ nehebut Necks. 

<=> D j" ! renput Years. 

NOTE i. Collective nouns have a feminine termina- 
tion, and take the adjective and verb in the singular. 
NOTE 2. Abstract nouns are often in the plural. 

Ex - m 'k^r7; / ^ Time - 

i tau Heat. 



( 26 ) 



CHAPTER V. 

THE GENITIVE. 

There are two ways of expressing the genitive ; 
these are called the Direct Genitive and the Indirect 
Genitive 

A. The Direct Genitive is expressed simply 
by the position of the substantives without any con- 
necting word, the governing word standing before the 
governed. 

Ex. t= j =l (j ™ jjj per Ymen House [of] Amen. 

^<=> JH^^ ^ »M sekhthi Over- 
seer of peasants. 

The Direct Genitive is generally used — 

1. after general designations of locality. 

Ex. ^ dut Hor Rock [of] Horus. 

2. after general designations of time. 

Ex - ^ ^ ° l«L em rek hem - ef In the 

time [of] His Majesty. 

3. after certain frequently recurring words, such as 



THE GENITIVE 27 

<=> mer Overseer ; ^37 neb Lord ; L ~~ 1 /^r 
House. 

Ex. ^37 ' neb taui Lord [of] the two lands. 

4. when ^. ^ ««"-^/ King, and ^ neter God, are 
the governed words. 

Ex. -j: ^ ^fj hemt ni'-sut Wife [of] the king. 

Note. — Nusut (seien) and w/w being ?..cred words are always 
written first, though pronounced last. 

The Indirect Genitive is formed by means of 
an adjective "wwv ni, which means "Belonging to.'* 
This adjective agrees in gender and number with the 
noun which precedes it and to which it belongs. 

Singular. Plural. 

masc. 'ww* n i or en ® nu 

I 

fern. o net A niut. 

Niut is rarely used, nu or net generally taking its 
place. 

(a) The Indirect Genitive is always used — 

1. to designate a part. 

E x - ^ Jwww /" E "~ ] tepi en shemu-ef The first 
of his harvest. 

2. to designate material. 

Ex. "www 8 h e t e p en s /iest An offering- 
table of alabaster. 



28 THE GENITIVE 

3. by way of further definition. 

Ex. ^ (j ^a«am ^ JJ "^j^© demy en Qebttu 
The City of Coptos. 

^ a W a A "||] <:::::> se en usert A man of 
strength. 

(b) It is generally used — 

1. to designate the possessor. 

Ex -iy^T±i^^ hetmer m 
Unnefer The temple of Unnefer. 

2. to express the idea of belonging to, or being 
derived from a place. 

Ex. U ' ' *~w« ^l^l f ^ /1 shens en Uauat 

Acacia-wood of Nubia. 



( 2 9 ) 



CHAPTER VI. 

ADJECTIVES. 

THE adjective agrees with its noun in number and 
gender, and is written after the noun. 

f ^ m \ " nesemt Sweet beer. 

bekhenti urtt Two 



j 



\\ CTZ] <=> w 
great towers. 

Exception. The adjective ^z^> ky (masc), 

ket (fern.), "Another," always precedes the noun to 
which it refers. 

Occasionally the possessive suffix is repeated with 
the adjective, probably for emphasis. 

Ex. ^j^. ^ sa-ef ur-ef His great (i.e. 

eldest) son (lit. His son, his great one). 

Nisbe Form. 

There are many adjectives derived from preposi- 
tions. These govern a following noun or suffix, like 
a preposition, but are declinable like other adjectives, 

W ytrii He who is Derived from fk m In 



3 o 



ADJECTIVES 



He who is Derived from Arr Upon 

upon > 

® tep Upon 



Men. He who is 



khenti He who : 



nyufi He who is 
not 



myti He who is 
like 



\\ 

°°\ 
a \\ 

Declension 



«» Belonging 
to 

Northern 



khent Before* 

in front 



my Like 
en To 

tnekt North 



Singular. 

masc. -|J- \\ ymt He who is in. 
fem. -jj- ^ ymt She who is in. 
Plural. 

masc. -JJ- j ym'iii They who are in. 
Ex. [J -JJ- <=» ^ ymt yb-ef She who is in his heart. 



on the sand. 
^ myti-ej He who is like him. 



sf www ^ TV ^ ^\ 

\\ t _tt ^ '"-■ f »*> generally written ^ , "He who belongs 
to the reed," is the title of the King of Upper Egypt. 



DEGREES OF COMPARISON. 3 1 

Degrees of Comparison. 

The comparative is formed by placing the preposi- 
tion <=> er after the adjective. 

Ex. | <=> nefer er ykhet nebt 

More beautiful than anything (lit. Beau- 
tiful more than all things). 

There is no true superlative. It is expressed by an 

adjective in the dual, or by ua One, placed before 

an adjective. 

Ex. || or | ^> \\ neferui Most beautiful 

(lit. Twice beautiful). 

q ua yker Most excellent (lit. 
The one excellent). 



( 32 ) 



CHAPTER VII. 

NUMERALS. 

A. Cardinal Numbers, 

The numbers are written thus : 

I units 1 thousands 

^ tens *| tens of thousands 

(§. hundreds "^v, hundreds of thousands 

The numerals are used like the Roman numerals, 
and the greater number precedes the less, as in 
English. 

- s <? @@ n n mi 

Ex. 1 . „ „ ii,347- 

I -k e n n in ,w 

The transliteration of the numerals is as follows : 





One 


sen 


Two 


khemt 


Three 


fedu 


Four 


dua 


Five 


sys 


Six 


sefekh 


Seven 



NUMERALS 33 
® AWWV khemen Eight 
□ p peses Nine 

maba Thirty 

shet Hundred 

® kha Thousand 

_/i zebd Ten thousand 

# Hundred thousand 

Note — The transliteration of the other numerals is still conjectural. 
Numbers are given by the numerals, and not by the transliteration. 

The noun precedes the number and is in the plural. 
Exceptions. — The noun is in the singular 

1. With the numeral 2. 

Ex. 1 1 uya sen Two ships. 

2. In accounts and in specifications of time and 

measure. 

Ex. \ renpet no One hundred [and] ten 
years. 

J J meh fedu Four cubits. 

* x j" 2- ua One, is treated as an adjective and agrees 
with its noun in gender. 



34 NUMERALS 

B. Ordinal Numbers. 

The ordinals are formed by adding nu to the 
cardinals. 

Ex. q seanu Second. 
They may precede or follow the noun. 

Exception. @ ^ -or | ^ tepi First, always follows 
the noun. 



( 35 ) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

ADVERBS. 

There is no special adverbial form, but adverbs can 
be expressed as follows : 

i. By adjectives, either masculine or feminine, pre- 
ceded by the preposition <=> er. 

Ex. <z=> < ~~ s A | er menkh Excellently. 




er aat Very. 



2. By adjectives used absolutely. The feminine 




urt Great, is used to intensify the adverb. 



qas-ef dsha He vomits often {dsha, 
lit. Numerous). 

He wept ™ ^ | aau urt 
Very greatly. 

Note.— For the absolute use of adjectives there is an exact parallel 
in German; cf. e.g. "schon," which means either "fine" (adjective) 
or "finely" (adverb). 

3. By derivation from prepositions. 
(J Jjj^ ym Therein, thereof, therewith, therefrom. 

® ^ kheft In front. 



ADVERBS 



Formerly. 



36 

^ (=13) zer-bah \ 

em ' k/iet] 

Jk^ emsa 

^ eg] /^r \ Afterward 
I I 

<rr> [ D ] -ft* 
1 

rtwvAA 1 o 1 en sa ) 



em-baii Before. 



( 37 ) 



CHAPTER IX. 

PREPOSITIONS. 

There are two classes of prepositions — Simple and 
Compound. 

1. Simple, 
en i. For. 

2. To (of motion to persons 

only). 

3. Because of. 

4. In (of time). 

ik em 1. In (of time and place). 

2. At. From. With. 

3. Into. Out of (of place). 

4. Among. To Of. 

5. As. Like. According to. 

6. Into (after the verbs To be 

or To make). 

7. By means of. 

8. Occasionally to introduce 

direct discourse, when it 
remains untranslated. 

<=> er 1. At By. 

2. To (motion to a thing). Into 

(inexact for vs. em). 



PREPOSITIONS 

3. As far as. 

4. [Hostile] toward. 

5. Distributively of time ; e.g. 

Per day, Every fonr days. 

her 1. Of indefinite time and space: 
e.g. At the time of. /« the 
north. 

2. Down. In addition to. 

3. [To pass] by. [To deviate] 
from. 

4. Distributively: eg. Upon each 
one. 

5. [Anointing or cooking] with. 

6. Because of. On account of. 

I. Under. 

Also used of being laden, be- 
cause the bearer is under 
the burden, and therefore 
often means carrying or 
possessing. 

1. With. 

2. To [receive] from. 

3. Under (in the sense of "in 
the reign of"). 

1. In the possession of. 

2. [To take] from. [To Teceive] 
from. 

3. [To be done] by (living 
agent). 

4. Because of 



kher 



kher 



COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS 



39' 



kheft I. In front of. 

2. According to. 

3. Corresponding to. 

4. Simultaneously with. 

ymitu 1. Between. 

2. In the midst of. 

yn Used only to express the sub- 
ject with the passive. 

my I. Like. 
2. As. 

ha I. Behind. 
2. Around. 

hend Together with. 



^ khent Before. 

® tep Upon. 

Bt, zer 1. When. 

<=> 2. Since 

II. Compound. 

These are simple prepositions compounded with 
substantives. 

(] ^> H em-ysu As reward for. 

1=^ 1 f I. Before. 

r-^-, I , 7 1 2. In front of. 

contracted to ^ n \ 3 ' In the 

J ( sence of. 



40 



PREPOSITIONS- 




<=>fi 



em- em 


Among. 


em-hat 


I. At the sum- 




mit. 




2. In front of. 


em-lier 


In front of. 


em-hev-yb 


T 

In tnc midst ot. 


em-khenu 


In the inside of. 


ein-kket 


I. Behind. 




2. After. 


em-gad 


In the midst of. 


em-dy 


Together with. 


en-merut 


In order that. 


neferyt-er 


As far as. 


er-aqa 


Opposite. 


cr-ges 


At the side. 


er-zeru 


As far as. 




i. JDcJiinu. 




2. Alter. 


her-sa 


I. Behind. 




2. After. 


her-zaza 


Upon. 



COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS 41 
^ ^> <=> heru-er Apart from. 

kheft-her In front of. 



^ — ^ kker-hat At the summit. 

=> a. I 

|\ 1. Before. 

2. In front of. 

3. Straight up to, 

towards. 



( 42 ) 



CHAPTER X. 

CONJUNCTIONS. 

Conjunctions are used— 

I. Enclitically, being joined to the first word of the 

sentence. 

II. Absolutely, as in English. 

I. Enclitic. 

(J jl ys like " Namely " introduces an explanatory- 
addition. 

Ex< A 1 W yrn ~ y en e f ni ~ sut ys 1 

made it for him [namely, I] the king. 
_n~ (J fl But not. 

silt But i expresses trie opposite to pre- 

^ ^ ^ **" But ; ceding clauses ' 

Ex. (j <=> J ^> ^ s=5 remtket nebt 

But all men [who preserve this tomb]. 

I. But. 
gert 2. Moreover. 

are used for emphasis following the 
emphasized word. 

Ex. -Z^) [] zesek yref Thou thyself. 




ABSOLUTE CONJUNCTIONS 43 
sedem yref then Hear ye. 



(J |1 ^356 ysk, like (j |1 s==s jyj//^, can be 



I I 1 

II. Absolute. 

1. Behold ) specifies the circufn- 
|1 s=3 ysth 2. However I stances under which 

3. When ) anything happens. 
Ex. |1 s=s ^ ysth uy em sab Behold me 

in [the position of] judge. 

zeden sekhti pen This peasant said however. 

translated When. 
Ex. (J 1 1 <c=*> I ^ Jn^ ^J) ysk su em khered When 
he was a child, 
n m a-^ , , *• And. 

q^^^ 2 Now 

Introduces new paragraphs of a narrative, and 
especially precedes a temporal clause. 

ykher em khet heru sua her nen Now after 
the days had passed -by this. 

Is used in promises, threats, and directions, to 
strengthen what is stated. 

Ex -^ Ik I) 3 ^ <?> EE * a ^ r 

*«« Surely I will cause water to be. 



( 44 ) 



CHAPTER XI. 

PARTICLES. 

Emphatic, Interrogative, Negative, Relative, and 
Conditional particles. 

I. Emphatic. 

Is used with every kind of sentence, and may be 
translated " Verily." It generally begins the sentence. 

M^nTkW^kh yr entet 

nebt em sesh sedem set Verily all that is in 
writing, hear it. 

[j <==> or < ^~^ yref or ref (see Conjunctions). 

Follows the word to be emphasized, and is not 
translated. 

Ex. | ama« ^ hes en ref ta The earth 

became light. 

(j wwa yn. 

Often emphasizes the subject of a sentence, but is 
not translated. 

Ex. |j «*« | ^ < ~ => yn hem-ef erdy yrt-ef 

His majesty caused that it be made. 



INTERROGATIVE PARTICLES 



45 



II. Interrogative. 



yn sr ynyu. 



Used when a sentence expresses a rhetorical 
question. 



Ex. 



yn. auaatn-y ref em yat-ef Shall I be 
robbed upon his land ? 

- a ma or em. 

The commonest interrogative particle, occurs at the 
end of a sentence. 

Ex. "W - — pehen--ek nen 

her ma Why hast thou reached this? 
(lit. Hast reached thou this on account of 
what ?). 

^ W E \ — yrtu nen m y m& 

Like what is this done ? (lit. Is done this 
like what ?). 

When - a em begins a sentence and has the 

meaning " Who ? " it is generally emphasized by 

\ A — y»> 

Ex. (j -wwna q J ^ yn em zed sti Whc 

says it ? 



4 6 

^) ^ P ^ ^) yshest 
-k-M ysy 



Who? What? 



Ex. (j g 1 1 <=> gjj □ ^> Who is it ? What 

is it ? 

-73- (j(j | □ ^ ysy pit, Who is it ? 
~rr O ^ ysnu When ? (lit. What of time ?). 

ZL W ten where ? 

Ex. " < ^ > " <=> ^ 1^ jjW ten Whither goest 

thou (fem.) ? (lit. Makest thou towards 
where ?). 

1 f S§} petry or J"\\ { H) ^ 
Always stands at the beginning of a sentence. 

Ex - ~ D w f i i = i w ^ ^ What 

[is] his field ? 

® | ^ ^> /e/y .«< What is it ? (with 
emphasis). 

^ | 

Always follows the first word of the sentence. 

yu teru sekhan-ek Didst thou remember ? 



NEGATIVE PARTICLES 47 
III. Negative. 

?n. 

^u. en is used — 

1. With the sedem-ef form of the verb (see p. 55) 

when it is not future in meaning. 
Ex. _n_, < ^ > I v|ji ^ ^ en rekh-y su I 
know him not. 

2. With the sedemn-ef form of the verb (see p. 55). 

Ex. _ru. 7} ^ (| Jjj^ <vz <?/ j>/;« 

He will not come out therefrom. 

3. Before a nominal sentence ; and in this case, 

when the subject is a pronoun, the absolute 
pronouns are used. 
Ex. ^ ^ □ ^ ^ ^ I en entef 
pu em madt It is not he in truth. 

4. With following sedemt-ef it has the meaning 

" Before " or " Without." 
Ex. _ju. |J| < ^ > || ^ en khepert Yst Before 
Isis existed. 

5. With sp Time. _Ji— en sep Never 

(lit. Not a time). 

0^ «w .s^ /za myt-ef her khast ten zer 

rek neter One like him never came 
upon this land since the time of the god. 



8 PARTICLES 

~ru . 

is used — 

1. With the sedem-ef form of the verb (p. 55) 

when it has a future meaning. 
„ _ n_ 00 ^ „ 
xlx. pesesh-ef He 

will not divide. 

2. Before an absolute infinitive. 



^ uza nen erdyt 

her ges Judging, not putting on one 
side (i.e. not being partisan). 

3. With a following noun or absolute pronoun, 

when it means " Not to be." 

mil ym, nen uy ym No water is there, 
I am not there. 

4. With < 7 = Tn erdy To give or cause. 

nen erdyt Without (lit. Not causing that). 

Ex. a *^=— I o nen erdyt 

pesesh-ef set Without his dividing it. 
_n_* or J £#. 
An emphatic negative. 

Ex. (j <=> J ^ ™ ^ ^ 

z*«£« 7/z# then If it is not in your posses- 
sion (lit. in your hand). 

J _n_ <s> " ^ ° nefer-en yrt mytet Never 
was the like done. 



NEGATIVE PARTICLES 49 

Is used when the verb is optative, or final in 
meaning. 

Ex. (j Jjj^ ^^ .gg>- <==> ym-ek yr ykhetu er-es 
Do not do anything for it. 

em (shortened form of the verb (j _ . 

Is used to negative imperatives, optatives, and 
relatives. 

Ex. * fl | ® em da yb-ek Let not 

thy heart be proud (lit. Great). 

*or. |^ Urn* 

Often used in conditional sentences. 

kher-es kheper em hesbut If it does not 
become worms. 

When compounded with < ~ > ei'dy it means To 
prevent (lit. Not to cause). 

ket net tern erdy per- hefau Another 
[remedy] for (lit. of) preventing snakes 
from going forth. 

Note.— For the use of [j and ^ n with relative 

sentences, see p. 66. 

* C^TT V « reall >' a Verb - 



50 PARTICLES 

^ ^ nyuty. 

A declinable adjective. It is also used as the 

negative of the relative particle enti That which is. 

& r q \\ 

Ex. ^tj^ <=> ^fj a ^=*- nyuti mut-ef The 

motherless one (lit. He who is without his 
mother). 

P \ ! *T ^ en ty a ^ m > nyutet 

se-kedut her-es This place of spirits on 
which there is no navigation (lit. There is 
not sailing upon it)* 

Note;. entet nyutet Everything (lit. That which is and 

that which is not). 

IV. Relative, 
enti He who is. That which is. 

\\ 

A declinable adjective. It is used in relative clauses. 

enti kher-ef Every officer who was with 
him. 

kat entiu her hert The overseers of the 
works who are upon the mountain. 



is ill. 



¥ se enti mer ^ man 



RELATIVE AND CONDITIONAL PARTICLES 51 

It is often used as a substantive with the meaning 
« He who." 

<=> *^ ! ^ Ps~^ ent'iu em shems-ef Those 
who are in his following. 

r*i 4^. ft i mtet mbt em mh ai1 that 

was in writing. 

This particle can be translated by the relative 
pronoun. For other methods of expressing the 
relative, see p. 66. 

V. Conditional. 

Is used only with the sedem-ef form^ and always 
begins a sentence. 

Ex. \ <=> ^l^i^lj P \ ^yrgem-ek 
zaysu If thou findest a wise man. 

This is a rare form. 

Ex. U (1 | my zed n-ek If it is said to thee. 



( 52 ) 



CHAPTER XII. 

VERBS. 

VERLS are divided into classes according to the 
number of letters in the root. The principal classes 
are : 

I. Biliteral (abbreviated to ii lit.) 
have two letters. 

Ex. ^ | meh To fill. 

Generally written the syllable meh and the 

abstract determinative. 



2. Secundae geminatae (ii ae gem.). 

In these verbs the second and third consonants are 
the same, the division between them being visible 
only in certain forms ; in all other cases the two 
letters come together and give the verb the form of 
a biliteral. 

Ex. V\ ~ww\ un To be. In the full form ^\ ' WWA 
unen. 

Generally written -^a, the syllable un and the 
phonetic complement n; the full form is 



VERBS 



53 



3. Triliteral (iii lit.) 

have three letters in the root. This is the largest 
class of all. 

Ex. |1 <c^> Jjj^ sedem To hear. 

Generally written , the word-sign sedem 

and the phonetic complement 

4. Tertiae infirmae (iii ae inf.). 
This is also a large class, in which the root was 
originally triliteral; the third letter, jj or drops 
out in most forms, giving the verb the appearance of 
a biliteral, though the conjugation of the iiiae inf. 
verbs is not the same as that of the ii lit. 

Ex. Jjj^ <=> |j mery To love. 

Generally written , the syllable mer and the 
phonetic complement r. 

5. Irregular, 
The irregular verbs are two. 
\ A To go. 

or erdy To give. 



6. Other classes. 



The Tertiae geminatae (iii ae gem.), quartae in- 
firmae (ivae inf.), quadriliteral (ivlit.), and quinque- 



5^ 



VERBS 



literal (v lit.) are rare, and need not be further noticed 
here. 

Note. — The student must remember that the F in the transliteration 
is not to be counted among the root-letters. In the triliteral verb 
sedem, for instance, the root-letters are S D M. 



The conjugation of Egyptian verbs is entirely 
different from that of any European language, and 
is Semitic in character. 

The verb sedem, To hear, is here taken as the type ; 
and the forms of the verb are called, as in Semitic 
grammars, after the third person singular masculine, 
the F being the pronoun of the third person singular 
masculine suffixed to the verb. 

The forms of the verb (the use of which is explained 
below) are: 
I. Sedem-ef. 



2. Sedemn-ef. I Used in verbal sentences (see 



4. Sedemkher-ef. J 

5. The Pseudo-Participle. Used in Compound 

Nominal sentences (see p. 12). 

6. Compounds with auxiliary verbs. 

7. The Infinitive. 

8. Sedemt-ef. 

9. The Passive. 

10. The Participles. 

11. Relative Form. 

12. Verbal Adjective. 

13. Impersonal Form. 

14. Causative Form. 

15. Future. 



Conjugation. 




CONJUGATION 



5^ 



i. Sedem-ef. 

In the form sedem-ef the subject follows the verb 
without any connective between. The subject may 
be either a noun or a pronoun. The pronoun is 
always suffixed to the verb, but the noun-subject may 
be quite at the end of the sentence and separated 
from the verb by other words. 

Ex. a) With pronoun-subject : 

sedem-ef He hears. 



° t " = ^ ^ zed-y I speak. 

b) With noun-subject : 

I ^ i UZ ^ em ~ e f ma J est y com ~ 

manded. 

^| ^ ^ zed sekhtl The peasant said. 

The sedem-ef form is generally used as — 

1. the indicative, either present or past, 

2. the subjunctive (after erdy) 

3. the optative. 

The tense by which to translate the sedem-ef form 
must be judged by the context. 

2. Sedemnef. 

In the sedemnef form the verb receives an ending 
ra, which is written after the determinative, but it is 
really added to the stem of the verb. This form can 
usually be correctly translated by the past instead of 
the present. It denotes the completed action, and is 
generally used in narrative. 



56 



VERBS 



As in the sedemef 'form the subject, whether noun 
or pronoun, follows the verb. 
Ex. a) with pronoun-subject : 

jjj^ sedemnef He heard. 

" <2> " J) ym-y menu I made monuments. 
3) with noun-subject : 

«~w*aa | ^ sedemen hem-ef His majesty 
heard. 

^ zedn-ef nen He said this. 

3. Sedemynef. 

In this form the verb receives an ending yn, which 
is written after the determinative. It was originally 
ceremonial, and is used especially when the subject is 
a person to whom respect is due. 
Ex. a) with pronoun-subject : 

Jjj^ (j ^ sedemynef He heard. 
b) with noun-subject : 
<=> (j /www I ^ erdy-yn Jiem-ef His majesty- 
gave. 

Exceptions. With the verbs ° U=i | To speak, 
J\ ^ j/z^ To go, j/« To bring, -o>- To do, the 

sedemynef form is constantly used with any subject. 
It is also used in directions and advice : 

Ex. |1 I] ™ ^ (j jwj ^» m The 

man should drink [it]. 



CONJUGATION 



57 



4. Sedemkheref. 

A rare form, occasionally used in descriptions and 
as a mild imperative. 

Ex. <=> p zedkherek er es Say 

thou to her. 

NoTE.Sede/nricf, sedemynef, sedemkheref are all formed in the same 
way, by inserting a particle (en, yn, or k/ier) between the root of the 
verb and the subject. 



5. The Pseudo-Participle. 

The pseudo- participle is the ancient inflexion of the 
verb, but it was superseded by the sedemef forms. Its 
use is confined to the Compound Nominal sentence, 
where the subject precedes the verb, but only when 
the verb is intransitive or passive. There is no 
equivalent form in English, for it is often used where 
we should employ a participle, and it can also be 
translated by the indicative, present or past. 

The following verbs take the pseudo-participle when 
the subject precedes the verb (Compound Nominal 
sentence, see p. 12). 

1. Passives. 

Ex. <£) I fend zebau The nose is 
stopped up. 

2. Intransitives. 

age advances. 



58 



VERBS 



3. Verbs of Condition when they denote the con- 
tinuation of the condition (meh To be full). 

er-khemt-y her-y yu-y mehkuy A third of 
me [added] to me, then I am full. 

4. ^j? kheper in all its meanings. 

Ex. (j fifi |j| <=> kheper Old age 

comes to pass. 
Exception. The verb < ^ > j] rekh To know, is in 
the pseudo-participle form with both active and passive 
meanings. This is one of the few verbs in which the 
pseudo-participle has an active-transitive meaning. 

Ex. (j ^ vjji ^ I k=* ^ ^ jw? 
It is that I know. 

6. Compounds with Auxiliary Verbs. 
Yu sedemef. 

The verb (j ^ /« is used with either the Sedem-ef 

or Sedemn-ef forms. It maybe translated, "It is that:" 
It is generally used at the beginning of a paragraph. 

Ex. (j^,^J^**=^ yu sedem-ef It is that 

he hears. 

(j ^ J^i! f u se ^ em neter 1S *^ at 
the god hears (cf. the French " C'est que 
j'entends"). 



CONJUGATION 59 

(1) Yu-ef sedemef. 

When the pronoun is added to the auxiliary verb 
as well as to the verb, it gives the meaning of 
" accustomed to." 

Ex. (j ^> ^ 4> ^ ^ yu-y sedem-y I am 

accustomed to hear. 

(2) The verb nn To be, is used in the same, 
manner as (I yu, and with the same meaning. 

(3) The verb ^ " ° dhdn, which means literally 

To stand or arise, precedes the verb. It can be 
translated " Then." The active voice of transitive 

verbs follows ^ ° dhdn in the sedemn-ef form ; 

intransitives take the pseudo-participle, while passives 
follow in the uninfected passive form (see p. 65, 9. I.). 

Ex. ^ *" ° j^J www dhdn sedemen hati-d 

Then the prince heard. 

hem-ef uza em hetep Then His Majesty 
went in peace. 

If the subject of the sentence is a pronoun, it is 

attached to ^ ° dhdn. 

khent kuy Then I sailed up. 



60 VERBS 

(4) The auxiliaries fjfl ^ yun, ' ' peren, 



are employed like ^ M dhan. 



(5) The verb -<s>- To do or Make, takes the 
infinitive after it. 

Ex. <s>- ^ c 5p ^ I went (lit. 

I made a going). 

(6) □ ^> /z^, which is in reality the demonstrative 

pronoun "This," is compounded with the verb as an 
auxiliary. It invariably follows the verb, and may be 
translated by " It is," or " It is that." 

Ex. □ ^ sedem-ef pu It is he who 

hears, or, It is that he hears. 

7. The Infinitive. 

The infinitive is sometimes masculine, sometimes 
feminine. The masculine form has no special ending, 
the feminine form ends in ^ /. 

Ex., masc. ^) sedem To hear. 
□ 



kheper To exist. 

A 



1 1 ^ 

fern. A pert To go out. 



sement To make firm. 



Masculine forms are : 
ii lit. 

ii ae gem. 

iii lit. 



CONJUGATION 6l 

iv lit. 
vlit. 

caus ii ae gem. 
caus. iii lit 

t. Feminine forms are : 

iii ae inf. 

iv ae inf. 
caus. ii lit. 

The irregular verbs &^ n erdyt To give, 

c. Forms either masculine or feminine are : 

v ae inf. 
caus. iii ae inf. 



Uses of the Infinitive. 

I. As a substantive (cf. use of infinitive with article 
in German and Greek). 

a. As subject — 

pu yrt en ef set It was my wish to make 
it for him. Here ^ yrt To make, is 
the subject of the sentence. 

b. As object — 

i) After verbs of willing or commanding. 



Ex. 



udetu en ef deba set He was commanded 
to pay it. 



62 VERBS 

2) Of kindred meaning (called the Complementary 
Infinitive, cf. Cognate Accusative). 

Ex. X^ 3 ^1 P ™ ^ "IT khenen- 
sen khent They rowed (lit. They rowed 
a rowing). 



muten ys Tety mutet But Teta dies 
not (lit. Dies not dying). 

j|i |1 ^ ■= ^ mest cf mesut He is born 
(lit He is born a birth). 

c. As possessive — 

set teka em liet-7ieter The day of lamp- 
lighting in the temple. 

II. Governed by an adjective. 

Ex. J jj |^ nefer medic Excellent 
[in] speaking. 

III. Governed by a preposition. 

When used with certain prepositions it gives them 
a special meaning. 

1) em with the infinitive denotes time. 

Ex. [They were astonished] ^(j ^ em yyt 
when they came. 



CONJUGATION 



63 



2) <=> er expresses purpose. 

/www . a . r\ m „ <ss& 

Ex -(flh = SE^^PJl^w 

1 khent-ef er sekhert kheftiu-ef 

He sailed up to overthrow his enemies. 

Exception. <=> er zed, which means, 

literally, In order to say, is simply the 
beginning of direct discourse. 

3) ^ her expresses simultaneousness. 

Tier fert He found him as he was 
going out (lit. Upon going out). 

4) /www en and a ma express cause. 

Ex. [I lived honoured by the king] o 

c=?:£=! 1 Q ma yrt maat 

^ * 1 ^ \ »WW\A 1 /WWSA 

en ni-sut Because I wrought truth for 
the king. 

5) ^ fl fc^rt connects the infinitive with the 

preceding verb, the infinitive being then 
translated as if co-ordinate. 

yu-efher unem ta 500 ... . 
fo?^ des 100 He eats 500 loaves .... 
and drinks 100 jars of beer (lit. Together 
with drinking). 



6 4 



VERBS 



IV. Absolutely, as an explanatory clause to a 
sentence. 

jjH yrn-es em-menu-es enyt-es Ymen 

yrt en ef tekhenui urui She made [it] 
as her monument for her father Amen, 
making for him two great obelisks. 

8. SEDEMT-EF. 

This is so called because it consists of a form ending 
in o t, followed by its subject, and it can also govern 
an object. 

Ex. ^ q (j {==±3 khepert meny The death 

took place (lit The happening of the 
death). 

2 ^ S==> ^ my udet then Hor As 
Horus placed thee (fem.). 

It is used in a dependent clause when the subject is 
different from the subject of the preceding clause. 

Ex. " They were astonished when they came ; " the 
subjects of both clauses being the same, the infinitive 

is used, ^(j ^ em yyt "when they came." But 

in the sentence, " I was astonished when they came," 
the two clauses having different subjects, the sedemt-ef 

form is used, P i i i em J7^' sen "when they 



CONJUGATION 



65 



It can be translated by the adverb "When," when 
it begins the sentence. 

Ex. [On New Year's Day] Jj^ j\ ° " ^ 
per-en neb-ef when the house 
gives (gifts) to its master. 

™ $0 Hihi erdyt - y '"" en redy - y 

demyn-y ynbii Keqa When I had given the 
road to my feet (i.e. when I had run) I 
came to the Prince's Walls. 

9. The Passive. 

I. Uninflected. 

This is a difficult form to recognize, as it is written 
exactly like the active, and can only be distinguished 
by the context. 

Ex - | P \ ft \ 1 1 1 en ek kheredu kJiemt 
Three children are born to thee (lit. Are 
born to thee children three). 

II. With o ^ tic. 

The passive is generally indicated by adding the 
syllable ^ ^ tu to the root of the verb after the 
determinative. 

Ex. 4> Q ^> sedemtu-ef He is heard. 

10. Participles. Seep. 71. 

The participles occur in the active and passive, and 
in the past and present They can be translated by a 

F 



66 



VERBS 



relative clause when the relative is in the nominative, 
i.e. Who, Which. 

The participles are used — 

1. Like adjectives. 

Ex. C^D ^ ^ ^Errj . <h> _ j^,^^ dut yryut er 
ef The wrong done against him. 

2. Like substantives. 
E-Prfer.VdH'^' — «Hf One 



(fern.) who has borne a boy. 
' W ^ m sedem y u The listeners - 



ii. Relative Forms.* 

Masc. Fern. 
Sedemu-ef. Sedemt-ef. 
Sedemun-ef. Sedemtn-ef. 
The N-form is here used for the past. 
These forms are used indifferently according to the 
gender required ; therefore sedemu-ef or sedemun-ef 
denote persons, and sedemt-ef or sedemtn-ef denote 
things, the feminine being used for the neuter. 

These forms are used in relative sentences where the 
relative is not a nominative. They are employed as : — 

1. Subject. 

2. Object. 

* The verbs ^ ti ( and f) — ) are used in tne relative 
form to negative a relative sentence ; they then take after them a 
special form known as the " predicative form." For both genders it is 
the simple stem of the verb, with ^ sometimes added. 



CONJUGATION 67 

3. In the genitive. 

4. After a preposition. 

Ex. J ^ ^ _^ yrert-y en-ek 

That which I do to thee is good. 
<=> ^ I ~ □ " mer ynent hap Over- 
seer of that which the Nile brings. 
c->| \ kheft zedeten-ef ym 

According to that which he had said 
about it. 
Sedemuf denotes persons. 

Ex. |^ ^ PP ^ hesesu neb-ef He who is 
praised of his lord. 

sendef khet Masui He whose fear [is 
upon] those who walk the deserts. 



12. Verbal Adjective. 

The verbal adjective is employed both as adjective 
and substantive. 

sa-y neb se-rudetifi task pen Every son of 
mine who shall make this boundary increase. 

vv« v^> *tfL_ em yakhet en se- 

demtifi As a splendid thing for him who 
will hear it. 



68 VERBS 

13. Impersonal Form. 

The verb used impersonally, i.e. without a subject, 
is not infrequent. It can be translated in the same 
way as the French " On," or the German " Man." 

The passives are usually employed in this sense. 

Ex. < ^ > I c» ^ rhtw It is known. 

This impersonal is often a respectful designation of 
the King. 

14. Causative Form. 

The causative is formed by adding the prefix fl s to 
the root of the verb. 

fumm^ ^ |~| ,111 1 1 11 1 11, g 

Ex. A menkii To be excellent ; I A. 

AAAAAA 0^ 1 AAAAAA t) 

se-menkh To cause to be excellent ; 
< ^ > I rekh To know ; p < ^ > | se-rekh 
To cause to know. 
In verbs beginning with ^> u, the ^ u is some- 
times omitted in the causative form. 

Ex. ^ P ^ usek'h To be broad ; pp ^ se-sekh 
To cause to be broad. 

15. Future. 

The future can be formed by the auxiliary (j ^ 
followed by <=> and the infinitive. 

Ex. (j <=> ^ Jjj^ yu-ef er sedem He 

will hear. 



( 69 ) 



CHAPTER XIII. 



NOTES ON SYNTAX. 



A FEW notes on the syntax of the substantive are 
given here. 

I. The Absolute Substantive. 

When the substantive stands alone without a verb 
or a preposition it is said to be "absolute." This is 
the case — 

I. In designations of time. 

Ex. ° I© a"*™ try en At the time of (lit. 



Time of). 

_J rd neb Every day (lit. Every sun). 

( i ( ybd 4 In the fourth month (lit. Month 

4). The absolute substantive is known 
in English and is used in dates, as when 
we begin a letter or document "the 21st 
day of October." 





70 NOTES ON SYNTAX 

3. In expressions with © sep Time. 

Ex. |_j ^ ® 1 1 1 1 sep 4 Four times. 

4. When following an adjective, and limiting its 

application. 

Ex. (J J^_^ I ^ pj 1 ^ j'^r sekheru Ex- 
cellent [in] plans 

J ^ wa< ^ kheru True [of] voice. 

II. Apposition and Co-ordination. 

The substantive explaining stands after the one 
explained. 

The following peculiar cases are important — 

1. When specifying material, the quality and nature 

stand first, the noun or object comes second. 

Ex. (j ^ I jf^ p ^ yner hez qres A 

sarcophagus of white stone (lit. White 
stone, a sarcophagus). 

2. When specifying locality. 

Ex. ^ J £££ ^ © 7«-w Abdu Abydos 

[of the nome] of Thinis (lit. Thinis, 
Abydos). 



3. When specifying number and measure. 

Ex. Jf0^Ji](j0^ heqetqeby 22 Twenty- 
two jars of beer (lit. Beer, jars 22) 



NOTES ON SYNTAX 7 1 

Co-ordinated words are generally left unconnected. 
Ex. -Tjl ^ shema meht South and North. 

If the things are closely connected they are united 
by the preposition her. 

Ex. zd her huyt Storm and wind (lit. Storm upon 
wind). 

The preposition ^ q hena permits each of the 

connected words to stand forth individually, each 
being of equal importance, like our " as well as." 

mutef His father as well as his mother. 
III. Emphasis. 

When the subject of the simple sentence with a 
verbal predicate is emphatic, it is usual to employ the 

form of sentence with l| followed by a substantive, 

after which comes a participle as predicate. If the 
subject is fern, or plur., the participle does not always 
agree in gender or number. When the subject is a 
pronoun, the later absolute pronoun ((j &c.) 

isused - ±Ll) — ilPTTlS^ yn 

hem-ka en se s-rud kheto-ef It is the Ka-servant of a 
man who perpetuates his offerings. 



( 72 ) 



EXERCISES.. 
I. 



Write in alphabetic signs- 
>-=> aa 

nu 

per 

hetep 
"| user 

II. 

Write with the phonetic complement- 
g I kem T»T<T sha ^ su 

ankh S kha ^ m y 
T kha pekher ma 





pa 


U ka 


p 


shu 






yb 


$ her 




ur 


J yn 


I 


aha 


Cfca aha 



| nezem C hem 
jj shems /t^f gem 



■^k seba 
A za 



ua 

nefer 
kheper 



neh 
sedem 



III. 



Sometimes the phonetic complement is the first or 
the middle consonant. 



| heqa ] 



EXERCISES 73 
IV. 

Give the transliteration and syllabic forms of — 

u ®° in 




V. 

Put the correct determinatives to — 





to, Land. 


1 


«c?/t?y, A god. 




A aq, To enter. 




jwd?^", Blood. 




To travel. 




nejiebt, Neck. 


1 


J yneb, Wall. 


ir 


Nile. 




shu, Free from. 


IT 


«£fe^,Goddess 




remth, People. 




khered, Child. 


crzi 


per, To go out. 


5- 


Mother. 




Woman. 




^ kent, Black. 




^ d merhet, Oil. 


p^ 


shu, Dry. 


5 


<cz> ;;?c?r, Pyramid. 




set; Prince. 



74 



Translate— 

I hear. Thou lovest. He goes. 

We dig. You speak. They follow. 



VII. 



They go to [the] king. He gives bread to his son. 

yu en rdy ta sa 

2 I 2 I 2 

Love [ye] your father. He married me to his 

mer meny em 

I 2 1 2 1 

daughter. He found it. I made [the] monuments 

gem yrti menu 

21 32 1 

of [the] gods. He leads me. His majesty commanded 

me neteru seshem hem uz 

2 1 

to-dig this canal. Never came one like him upon 

shad mer en-sep ha myty 

21 321 

this land. [A] going it-is-that this peasant made. 

khast shemt sekhti yn. 

VIII. 

The direct and indirect genitive— 

[The] wife of [the] king. [The] son of his body. 

d.g. i.g. 

Lord of [the] Two Lands. Another, remedy of 

d.g. i.g. 

I 32 

causing [the] hair to-grow. Mother of [the] majesty 



EXERCISES 



75 



of [thc]-King-of-Upper-and- Lower-Egypt (ni-snt hyt). 
Water of (plu.) natron. I heard voices [and the] 
lowing of cattle. 

IX. 

Adjectives — 

23 1 .3 21 

His eldest daughter. It-is [a] good land. All 
taste departs. [The] strong bull. [The] two great 
doors. 

X. 

Numerals — 

Five years. [The] first day. One hundred [and] 
fifty thousand six hundred [and] fourteen. Ten men. 

se 

Twelve bulls. One thousand [and] three. [The] 

ka 

third chikl 

khered 

XI. 

Under [the] majesty of [the]-King-of-the-South- 
and-North. He sailed upon it. I speak unto you. 

31 

He said he would-fight with me. He [shall] not 
2 

come-forth therefrom. Anoint therewith. [The] 
gods rejoiced (lit. under joy) in my time (Nominal 
sentence). Living for-ever unto eternity. Behold, 
I [am] before thee. After he had-found it stopped- 
up with stones. I did-more (lit. went-beyond) that- 
which-was-done formerly. Lay [it] upon [the] place 
of this hair after it has-been-taken-out. It was- 
brought immediately. After it-had-become evening.- 



76 



EXERCISES 



XII. 

He gave me milk. My statue was ornamented 
with gold, its apron with electrum. Give praise unto 
my statue. In order-to-cause-that thou mayest-know. 
He found [a] man standing upon [the] banks. [The] 
king's children gave me their hands. Sprinkle it with 
water (plu.)'of natron. Bend thy back unto thy chief. 
[A] son who-hears [is] as [the] Followers of Horus. 
I passed one hundred [and] ten years in life. At 
day-break I reached Peten. Food was brought for 
me from [the] palace. He [did] not answer these 
princes, he answered this peasant. His majesty 
commanded [that] I go to this desert. This army 
came, it cut-to-pieces [the] land of [the] Bedaween. 
[The] mouth is- silent, it [does] not speak. 




Notes. — I. Absolute substantive, read hat sep. 2. 
Tepi, lit. " First of," elliptical for " First month of." 
3. The throne name of a king is always compounded 
with Ra, which is written first though read last ; this 



EXERCISES 77 

name is read Menkheper-Ra. 4. Sedemt-ef form. 
5. Pseudo-participle. 6. The preposition her takes 
the phonetic complement before a suffixed pronoun. 
7. This word should be kheftiu, from khejt, "Oppo- 
site," khefti, " He who is opposite," kheffiu, " Those 
who are opposite," i.e. adversaries. 

XIV. 

¥lfcfi~!k<ia-™-s»l 
"«kS~¥Pf kWkl-S 

< — d no - X 1 1 SSI ^ \\ 1 
7 

/VWvVv < - | AAAAM » 

Notes. — I. Sedemef used as subjunctive after 
2. Fern. sing, after a collective noun. 3. Dual. 4. In- 
verted order of words ; direct genitive. 5. Pseudo- 
participle. 6. For U ° 7- Proper name. 



{ 78 ) 



Abydos 

After 

Age, Old 

Ale 
All 
Altar 

Amen (a god) 
And 

Anher (a god) 

Anoint 

Another 

Answer 

Appear 

Apron 



VOCABULARY. 



Engl ish- Egyptian . 





Abdu 




em-khet 


1ml in 


yaut 






" ^ 


neb 




khaut 




Ymen 


i ™ 


_ 

jna 




Anher 




ureh 


<=>X 








uskeb 




kha 








shendyt 



VOCABULARY 



Army 
As 
Back 
Bank 
Be, To 

Beautiful 

Become, To 

Bedaween 

Before 

Behold 

Bend 

Birth 

Black 

Blood 

Boat 

Body 





mesha 
em 




sa 




meryt 
un 

kheper 




nefer 




kheper 


k-* 


her'iu sha 

em-bah 

ma 




khems 




mest 


a ii 


kem 
snef 




aept 


*»-=» 
^ i 


khet 



80 VOCABULARY 

Born, To be jfj (1 mes 

Breac to 

Bring ^ ™ jy« 

Bul1 JdL ^ &a 

Canal mer 

v I 

Cattle q menment 

Cause, To < ~^ , <=> ^ m/p 

Chief ^ @ fory ^fl^a 

„ *~=^ hati-d 

Child S Jj) kltered 

Circumference ^ £<?<f 

Come, To j\ ^ j'« 

- '» * 

Come forth, To ' ' per 

Command, To |^ uz 

Cut to pieces, To ■ k ^x_ ba 

Daughter sat 



Day 

» 

Day-break 

Depart, To 

Desert 

Dig, To 
Do, To 
Doors (dual) 

Dry 

Eight 

Eldest 

Electrum 

Empty 

Enemy 

Enter 

Establish 

Eternity 



ENGLISH -EGYPTIAN 

Q 
O 



ui 1 



O 111 



ill 



A 



81 

heru 

sesu (in dates) 
ra 

hez en ta 

shem 

ktiast 

shad 
yr 

ruti 

shu 

khemen 
ur, semsu 
zam 
shu 

khejtiu 
aq 
men 
neheh 



82 

Evening 
Ever (for ever) 
Father 
Festival 

Fifty 
Fight, To 
Find, To 
Firm, To be 
First 
Five 

Follow, To 
Food 

Formerly 

Four 

Fourteen 

Free [from] 

From 



VOCABULARY 



mesheru 



nnn 
nn 



w li w 



or -Jc 

II 

mi 

n 

llll 



yt 
heb 

aha 

gem 

men 

tepi 

dua 

shems 

shab 

zer-bah 
fedu 

shu 



ENGLISH-EGYPTIAN 

To ^ 

Glad, To be ^ auyb 

Go, To 7^^or^[).A ^»or^ 

Go beyond, To ^ ~ 

Go out, To- ^ 7^ 

^ ^ neter 

(^\ neb 
O III 



God 
Gold 
Good 
Great 



Hand 



He 
Hear 



Grow ^ ^ 

Hair 



^ I 

C30 



rud 



Harvest 

He ^ g f 



entef 
sedem 



84 . VOCABULARY 

Heart ® yb' 

Her (acc.) ^ ^ or p \\ ^<?/ or ji 

u (possO P « 

Him \\ su 

His ef 

Horus (a god) ^ Her 

House ^ 

Hundred <§. shet 

I t<l>°<i ' 

If !)<=>, | \ yr, my 

Immediately ^ o W'* 

In front of ^ ^ 

It p <a or p \\ or si' 

Its R « 



ENGLISH-EGYPTIAN 



85 



It is that 

Joy 

King 



of Upper T 

Egypt + , 

ofLo r r * U 

Egypt >S 



Know, To 

Land 

Lay, To 

Lead, To 

Life 

Light 

Like 

Live, To 
Lord 
Love, To 

Lowing 
Majesty 





ir ® 



yu 

reshut 

ni-sut 

ni-sut 

byti 

rekh 

ta 

erdy 
J\ seshem 
ankh 

hez 



my or myfi 

ankh 

neb 

mer 

nemy 
Jiem 



86 

Make, To 

Man 

Marry 

Me 

Milk 

Monuments 
Mother 
Mouth 
My 

Natron 

Neck 

Never 

Nile 

Nine 

North 

Northern 
Not 



VOCABULARY 



111 



AAAA/Vv 



A □ 

Mill 
till 

s I 

^ w 



se 

meny 
uy 

yrtet 
menu 
mut 

re 

y 

Ties men 
nehebt 
en-sep 
Hap 



meht 
mehti 



ENGLISH-EGYPTIAN 87 

Of /www en (decl.) 

^ ™ ( indecl) 

Offering ^ ^ ete P 

Oil 21 5 mer¥t 

One 

Our ™ «» 
Overlay, To [1 ^ ~ 
Overseer ^ <=> 
Palace § ^ 

Pass, To (of time) ^ ^ ^ 

yr 

Peasant ^ 

People ^ r ** ,rt 

Peten (a country) ^ ^ Peten 
Place j)^ 

Prince ^ <=> (J ser . 



88 VOCABULARY 

Pyramid fJ^^^A 

Ra (a god) Ra 

Raise, To ^ ^ a thes 

Reach, To _S> J\ M 

Red ^ <=> ^her 

Remedy ° ^ ;=> ° 

Road ^ uat 

Ruler T^sS 

Sacred W 7 <=> *«w 

Sail, To p ^ ^ 

Satisfy, To ^ M# 

Say, To ^ zed 

Second ^ 

Seven 

She [I « 
Shine S kha 



ENGLISH-EGYPTIAN 



Silent, To be 






Six 


in 
in 




Slay 




sma 


Son 




sa 


Soul 




ba 


South 




shema 


Southern 


4 


rest 


Speak, To 




zed 


Sprinkle, To 


^ /vww\ 


netesh 


Stand, To 




aha 


Statue 




tut 


Stone 




yner 


Stop up, To 




zeba 


Strength 


1PT 


usert 


» 




nekht 


Strong 




user 




© O 


nekht 



go VOCABULARY 

Sweet ^ ^ | nezem 

Take out, To ^ fedy 

Taste ^"1 dept 

D c> I 

Teach sha 

Ten met 

Thee s=s ^ tkn 

Their (1 ™ 

Them P ™ sen 

Then | ^ 

Therefrom (j ^ 

Therewith (j ^ j>w 

These D ypen 



They I J«* 

Things ykhet 



Truth 

Twelve 
Twenty 

Twice 

Two 

Under 



111 



This 
Thou 

Thousand 

Three 
Thy 

Time ^_ 
To ~" 
Together with | 

Travel north, To 

Traverse, To A 

(Ha 

Tree 



ENGLISH-EGYPTIAN 
□ 



91 



o 



nn 

n n 

© 
11 

11 



pen 

ek 

entek 

kha 

khemt 

ek 

rek 

en 

hena 

khed 
za 
khet 
maat 



sep sen 

sen x 

kher 



kher 



92 

Unto 
Upon 

Us 

Voice 

Wall 

Water 

We 

Who 

Wife 

With (By means 
of) 

Woman 
Worthy 

Year ) 



VOCABULARY 



in dates 



You 



Your 





er 




her 


1 1 1 


en 




kheru 




yneb 


= 


mu 


~wwv 

III 


en 


<=> w 


enti (decl.) 






n 


hetnt 


k 


em 
hemt 




ymakh 




j renpet 




\ hat sep 


. .. , 




1 1 1 


then 






o MM 


enttkan 






/WW\A 


then 



EGYPTIAN-ENGLISH 



93 



Egyptian- English. 

Note. — Words which begin in transliteration with 
e are to be looked for under the first consonant, e.g. 
entef will be found under N, emkhet under M. 



£jp 21' fid 






si 


yu 


Tf ie fl-iaf 

\x is inai 


A% or 00 
^ ^ or 


vu or 1/1/ 


To go, come 


1 


yb 


Heart 


© 


ymakh 


Worthy 


Ik 


ym 


Therefrom, therewith 




yn 


To bring 




ynnk 


I (emphatic) 


4 J ii 


yneb 


Wall 


|| AAWW 


ynsf 


Stone 




yr 


To do, to make ; to 
pass (of time) 




yr 


If 




yrtet 


Milk 




ykhet 


Things 




IP- 

1* 





Father 


yth 


To pass (of time) 


da 


Great 


dnkh 


Life, to live 


aha 


To fight 


aha 


To stand 


aha 


Palace 


dq 


To enter 


uat 


Road, way 


uy 


Me 


ud 


One 


un 


To be 


ur 


Great, eldest 


ureh 


To anoint 


user 


Strong 


tisheb 


To answer 


HZ 


To command 



EGYPTIAN-ENGLISH 95. 





da 


Soul 




ba 


To cut to pieces 




byti 


King of Lower Egypt 


k\ 


pa 


The (masc.) 


1 1 
1 


per 


House 




per 


To go out, to come 


□ 


pen 


This (masc.) 




peli 


To reach 




pekhert 


Remedy. 


nut 
1 1 1 1 


pesez 


Nine 


□ o „ ~ „ 


Peten 


Peten (a country) 




f 


He, his 


mi 


fedti 


Four 


c2> , 


fedy 


To take out 




em 


As, in, to, with 




ma&t 


Truth, righteousness 




my | 


Like 




myti j 





VOCABULARY 

my If 

ma Behold 

mdten Sheikh, chief 

mu Water 

mut Mother 

em-bdh Before, in front 
men Firm 
meny To marry 

menu Monuments 

menment Cattle 

mer Overseer 

mer Canal 

Pyramid 
mer To love 

#z*ry* Bank 
merliet Oil 
em-khet After 

To be born 



EGYPTIAN-ENGLISH 



I I 



o 
I 

O III 



.J! ^ 



© □ 



mesha 


Army 


mesheru 


Evening 


met 


Ten 


en 


To 


en 


Not 


en 


We, us, our 


ni-sut 


King 




Of /nlnr ^ 


neb 


Lord ; every, all 


neb 


Gold 


nefer 


Good, beautiful 


nemy 


Lowing 


nehebt < 


IN cCK 


neheh 


Eternity 


nekht 


Strength, strong 




powerful 


en-sep 


Never 


entef 


He 


enten 


We 


entek 


Thou (masc.) 



98 




1^ 




4 



VOCABULARY 

£«/<?.$• She 

*wtawz They 

neter God 

«£/*r£ Goddess 

netesh Sprinkle 

enteth Thou (fern.) 

enttken You 

nesem Sweet 

<?r To 

re Mouth 

Ra Ra (a god) 

rut'i Two doors 

rud To grow 

razz/// People 

ren Name 

renpet Year 

featf sep Regnal year 

rekli To know 

resy Southern 



EGYPTIAN-ENGLISH 99 



reshut 


Joy 


rek 


Time 


red 


Foot 


erdy 


To give, cause, lay 


ha 


To come, to descend 


heru 


Day 


hat sep 


Regnal year 


hat'i-d 


Chief 


ha 


Limb 


hap 


Nile 


heb 


Festival 


hemt 


Woman, wife 


hem 


Majesty 


hend 


Together with 


her 


Upon, because of 


Her 


Horus (a god) 


her a 


Immediately 


her'iu shd 


Bedaween 



100 VOCABULARY 



q i 



her zaza 


Chief 


hesmen 


Natron 


heqa 


Ruler 


heknu 


Praises 


hetep 


Offering, peace 


hez 


Light, bright 


hez en ta 


Daybreak 


kha 


Thousand 


khast 


Desert 


kha 


To appear, to 




crowned 


kheper 


To be, to become 


kJteiHs 


To bend 


kfietnen 


Eight 


khetut 


Three 


khent 


In front of 


kher 


Undor 


kher 


Under, to possess 


kheru 


Voice 



EGYPTIAN-ENGLISH 



i, 



p* 

1 1 i.j 
in 

© 
ii 



kherp 


To lead 


khet 


Tree, wood, branch 


khered 


Child 


khet 


Body 


es 


She, her, it, its 


se 


Man 


sa 


Back 


sa 


Protection 


sa 


Son 


sat 


Daughter 


sya 


To recognize 


saq 


To pull together 


sys 


Six 


su 


Him 


seba 


To teach 


sefekh 


Seven 


sep sen 


Twice 


sma 


To slay 



102 VOCABULARY 

Pill sen They, them, their 

a^wna A sen To go beyond 

1 1 sen Two 

~_ snef Blood 

P ser Prince 

P ^ ' n .rasfekr To overlay 

U| u sekM Peasant 

m *«* To stretch out 

P ^ ^ sesbm To lead 

P i 2 J ^ To saU 

jj ^ ■«* Place 

PT^lrf, Bedaween 

^ To hear 

3M^J(g shab Food 

fiB^ " shad To dig 

(i \ O aft* Dry 

P ^ | shu Free from 



EGYPTIAN-ENGLISH 103 

tjp J\ shew. To go, to depart 

-=^f shema South 

£j |1 J\ shems To follow 

5™^ 1 shenu Hair 

5 ^ ^ (jlj |1 ' shendyt Apron 

(§. shet Hundred 

^ ^«a? Circumference 

gem To find 

\ ■ C2> - To catch sight of 

•szz^ ek Thou 

Ghost, spirit 

1 

U ^1 Bull 
^/ Other 

a ^ ^ Black 
Bread 

Land, country 
^ ^ U ^_' Boundary 
[j <=> (j tyty To trample 



I0 4 VOCABULARY 

° \ ° 1 Statue 

® \\ ° r I \\ iepi First 

t== " \ thu Thee (masc.) 

then Thee (fern.) 

^« You, your 

_ m _ j]_ To raise 

* or j'j ^ pi vs 

^ Taste 

^ dSfj^ Red 

Sf^ det Hand 

i ^ za To traverse, to cross 



S 

Si 



Electrum 
zeba To stop up 

ser-bah Formerly 



W ,ga«r Sacred 

•sk* For ever 

zed To speak, to say 



Sedbkef I AND II (p. 55) 
iwu-y I remain 



Sedemynef (p. .'>(!) 



Thou reiuuinest 



mni-eth ) 

»*•«-./ He i 

fnwifi She remains 

m<-»-rii Wo remain 

• You remain 

Skim mm i- (;>. 55) 
Ii 





menyn-y 


I remain 


Ec 


meuyu-ek \ 
menyn-cth \ 


T hou remain 




menyn-rf 


He remains 


EA 


menyn-ee 


She remains 






We remain 




menyn-thfu 






menyn-eeu 










] remain 




menthy 


Thou reniaincst 






He remains 


Em _ 


menthy 


She remains 






We remain 


Evr" 


menliuni 




^} 


menu J 
men% j 


They remain 



t*~p 

^Ep'rr 



Yu SEDEMEF (jfc &H) 

yu »ira-y It is that I remain 

yu-men-ek ) 

} It is that thou remainest 
yunwrth) 

yu men-ef It is that he remains 

yu men-et It is that she remains 

yu m*>n-en It is that ire remain 

y« yueuSfhen It is that you remain 

yu meu-sen It is that nay remain 



. Fotubf (p. 63) 
() ^ $ <=» ™ y«-y er mon I ahall 
jjtv^.e= yu-Hermcii 



y«-«/ < 



Thou wilt mnaJi 

m He will remain 
Ml She will remain 

am We shall remain 

• men You will remain 
men They will remuir 



Yo-ef nkukhef (p. :>'.)) 



I am wont tn rem 
Thou art wont to i 



4 if Sf ,JU " J 

(| ^ <=» L— ' ^» yn-ele men-ek 

| I] ^> -"-^ yu-ef men-ef He is wont to rei 

I) ^ f [1 yu-e« nien-es She i» wont to rt 

Q ^ i i i 7! i i i y-'" wn-*" We are wont to I 

(j ^ 55? 1=1 IS yu-lhen men-then You ire wont to 

1 \ P mm ^ P mm m ' H * , •' , The y * re wont *° 



Passive " mek To fill (;.. 66) 



^p 

^^Pm™ 



mehtu-etk j 

mehtn-lhen 
mehtu-sen 



IamiUed 

Thou art filled 

He is filled 
She is filled 
We a* filled 
Yon are filled 
They sre filled 



Relative Fob* To fill) (p. G6). 

.nMr-y That which I fill 

"^o^, meAI-«t ) 

! That which thou fillest 
" oaaaji meki-etk ) 

~ mekUrf That which he fills 

~ Nofl Mft**t That which sue fiUs 

"^c me**-™ That which we fill 

^ ™ ,n/')>M/ 1 rn That which you fill 

^ <=. p J"^ ™W-i.n Thai which thay fill 



Infinitive (;;. (SO). 
men To remai 



{p- 68). 



Pabticifi.es To fill) (p. 66). 

~* Ms) Having filled 

^ Bwi« Filing 

m, h Being filled 

°°\ % m ehu Having been filled 



|5J ./-4, TO BE COOL, am> ^\ »», TO SEE. 







I «ra cool 


■JOT 




I am cool 




yu ye6-y 


-Jfr- 


qeli-eth 


Thou art cool 


■JN~ 


gtifiMH 




li*Jh- 


yu geb-cth 


-JIK 


r b-,f 


He is cool • 


-JIC 


V«W 


He is cool 




yu 






She is cool 


-iii-p 


'/«''*"-«« 


She is cool 


QVJfll 1 


yu v«fr-«r 


-Jim 


J*" 


We are cool 


'JUS 




We are cool 










You are cool 




tpbyn-then 


You are cool 




yu qeb-the.a 






They are cool 


"JfMm 


qtbyn-ten 


They are cool 


1>-JWm 





Sedemviief (u. 56) 



Yu-«EOKHEr 58) 



Sedemek II (p. 55) 



oik— 

■JJIK 
■JJfP 

■IMFr! 



qtbel-ek 
qebeliith 
qebcb-cf 

qebeb-ert 

■jrb>b-th'H 



She is cool 
Wo are cool 
You are cool 
Thev arc cool 



■JJ8« 
UJfl- 

^JJfiT 
-JJIrS 

■JJJH 

■JJfi 
■JJSi 



I was cool 



qebrbrn-ek j 



Tl, ■ 



qeMttn-tlh ) 

qrbtbtn-ej He was cool 

i/thrben-t* She WM cool 

,/ebtbni-en Wc were cool 

qtbebeu-thru You were coi 



IMI'EBATIVE 



Be (thou) cool 
Be (ye) cool 



•JI.V 
<Jfti = 
*J1-V 
•J8.2J 
'Jf.fi. 

-JM 
•Jl*< 

-Jim 

-JfiV 
-JfV 
-Jfi* 
■JfM 



Sedemkheref (/». 5li) 
qebkher-y I 
a qebkher-tk \ 
» qebkktrtth \ 
qehkher-,/ 

yeM7*r-«i 
« qfbkkcy'Oun 
uebklterwtt 



Thou art cool 



Ho is cool 
She is cool 
Wc are cool 
You are cool 
They are cool 

l'sEI DO-PABTICIFLI (lA S7) 



It is that I am cool 

It is that Ihou art cool 

It is that be is cool 
It isthatihe is cool 
It is that we are cool 
It is that you nre cool 
It is that Ihev are cool 



.M'JJf* 
JJR4- 

JJi— 
ftMJfl 

^.T.'JJf.T, 

«w,t;-jjw: 



YUKF-SEDLMEF (p. 59) 
•iu-tk qvlieb'fl' , 

1 

yu-ek qrbeb~efh ] 
yU'tf qetttb-ff 



. l>e cool 



ft" 
IV. 



Fi Ti iiE (;i. 68) 


yu-;/ «• nia 


1 sh..ll see 


yu-eterma 
yu-vth cr ma 


1 

Vlhou wilt see 




He will see 


j-. fi cr ma 


She will sc.- 




We shall s.-e 


../.. f/,n, n-ma 


You will sec 


k cr ma 


They will see 



He is wont to be cool ^ 

We are wout to be cool ° i i i 

Y ou arc wout to be cool i -j^ " ffl 



Relative Fobii (p. 66) 

"ii [ 1 1 ' - 7 That which I see 

J Tlut which thou < 

mual-r/ That which he six 



\3 



qeblhij 

qebn (or .yety) 
qrblhf 

•jhdM 

(Mai 



I am cool 
Thou art cool 
He is cool 
She is cool 
Wo are cool 
You are cool 

They are cool 



y«-«en qebeb-nai They arc wont to be cool 

To <E seek ()«. 66) 
maotu-i 1 am seeo 



-JJ8 



,naal„fk 
vittaiu-eOi 



nl-e* That whirh she ti;es 
u/-«i That which we sec 
ut-lAen That wliieh you see 
That which they see 

0-.60) 

To be cool 
To see 



Y'ou ai 
They i 





Causative (p. 68) 


MM 


se-^iei To cause to be cool 




,fm„a To cause to sec 


I'abticiflks (y. 66) 


P'- 


ma | 

mat > Having seen 


(- 

"•^^ 
' £ a 


>»aa(or».«) Seeing 

r m 7' i 



IIIlit. 4 fc. sedem TO HEAR. 



Selewzf I end 11 (p. 55) 



'k# 

-»k~ 

'k~ 

^kP,7 



$edem-y 
tedem-ek 
tedem-eth 
tedem-ef 



«e<fem«tf«n 
tedem-ten 



He hears 
She hears 



Youh 
They 1 



Sedkmnif (p. 55) 



*k1 
<"k^. 
^k~ 

-»kZ 

*k~~p m 

*k~~ M 



tedemny I heard 

»edemn~ek \ 

j Thou beards 

tedemn-fth ) 

tedemn-ff He heard 

ledemn-ee She heard 

*i*frm»-ra We heard 

^k"""~rn "dtrmen-ihtn You heard 

^k^^P™ ' elim "' n "" : ' 1 They heard 
Imperative 



Sedemynee (p. 56) 



*k1 5 
*k^ 

"k4Z 
'k^Z 

*kq~~p 

^kHM 

«>ki~p; 



s«<i«myn-y 

«f(iemy)i-«i 

eedemyn-eth 

eedemyn-ef 

eedemyn-ee 

tedemt/ii-en 

sedemyn-then 

sedemyn-sen 



Yo-msdeiikf (p. 58) 



He hears 
She hears 
We hear 
You hear 
They hear 



Sedeukheref (p. 56) 



Hear thou 



udemkher-ek 
sedemkher-etk ) 
tedemkher-rf Let him hear 
sedemkher-es Let her hear 
xedemkher-en 
tedemkhtr-then Hear ye 
tedrmkher-em Let them hear 



*k 

^k W 

^kP 

^kpr 



tedem Hear thou 

«A>m-c/ Let him hear 

tedem-en Let her hear 

>edem-u Hear ye 

«cdna-M» Let them hear 



*k«L3§ 
<>k 
*k 
*k 
«"k 
ok 
*k 
*k 

Pbkudo-pabticiple (p. 57) 

^kfl 
'k.fl 
*k3K 

<>kv: 
^k^ 



Ifc'ka 
IVk- 

4**kP 

q^kr:, 
i^k" 
i^^kp^ 



yu redemy 
yu eedemek ] 
yu tedemeth j 
yu eedemef 
yu ledeiites 

yu sedemihen 



It is that I hear 

It is that thou heare 

It is that he hears 
It is that she hears 
It is that we hear 
It is that you hear 
It is that they hear 



Yu-BF SKDEHEF (jl. 59) 



I am wont to hear 
Thou art wont to hear 



I hear 

Thou hearest 
He hears 
She hears 
We hear 
You hear 
They (m.) hear 
They {/.) hear 



1 § f$ 4 k $ y "' y " edem ^ 

1] ^> 4) k" 111 * yiL-'k ttdtmrtk \ 

(j ^ t=» ^ %^ t= ° yn-eth wdem-etk j 

(j ^ - ^ V"-ef »edem-ef He is west to hear 

I ^ P ' P yu-M sedtm-ei Sho is want to hear 

'I ^ m ^ k> mm y"- en 'tdtm-en We are wont to hear 

1 ^ 4 ^k ~pj yn-thtn irde m-thtn You are wont to hear 

^ P mm ^ P MM *""*"' **fe" UM " They are wont to hear 
Passive (p. 66) 



Future [p. 6S) 



^k-M 

^k-fc- 

-k-fc- 

^k-^<- 

ok-fcP 

"k^T 

*k«*rn 
*k-iP~ 



Thou art heard 



tedemta-y 
sedemtu-ek \ 
tcdemttt-eih J 
mdemtn-ef He is heard 

iedtmln-«$ She is heard 

aedendii-M We are heard 

ledmdu-then You are leard 

sedem I a- sen They are heard 



^ jThou wilt bM 



yu y fr sedem I shall 1 
yu-ei i 

1^«<>k 

l^^^k H« will hear 

(j ^> (1 <=. ^ ^ yu-eA er wrf»m She will hear 

(j ^> ^ <=> yu-«>i rr ledem We shall hear 

!j ^> *=> ^> yu-Me« er sedem Vou will heai 

1 \ P ~ = " ^ k yu-»t ii sr Htbm They will hear 

Relative Form (/>. 66) 



<^kZ 
ok=P 

^k^M 

^k-p: 



That which I hear 
That which thou hearest 



tedeml-y 
sedemt-ek 
scdeiid-cth J 

nedewl-ef That which he hears 

tedewl-m That which she hears 

tedemtren That which we hear 

tedeud-then That which you hear 

tedemt-»en That which they neai 

Lneimtive (p. 60) 



^k 



udem To hear 



Caubathk (/>. 08) 



"k 



«e-j«f<im To cause to 1 
Participles (p. 66)' 



Sing. 
m ' 4 k \ 

f. nedtml Hearin; 

Plur. « 
m - ^ k 11 \ '" fem »" Heard 
f ^ k " i ****** 



HI as INF. „„ ry, TO LOVE. 4 



Skdemef I {p. 


55) 

1 


Sedkmtnkv (p. .')( 


) 




Yl'-SEDKMKF (p. 541) 




Fl'TVBi: (p. 68) 




•uery-y 


I love 


SI— # 


mc>y«-y 


Hove l|*2£ 


jrti >»«r-y 


His that I lo« 


• 




ya-y ST mert I shall love 


<=> 1 — 


me.-ek \ 


Thou lovest 




meryn-ci j 
meiyn-eth ) 


Thou lovest 


4*2- 


y« mer-si 
yu m*>-e<A 


It is that thai 


i lovest 


4fc2¥ 
4^? 


yu ei er mrrt T 

^Thoti wilt love 
yu-«(A rr mert J 




merej 


He love* 


sir 


meryn-ef 


He loves 


4*2- 


yu mn-rj 


It is that he lives 




yu-'fer mert He will love 


SP 


mcr-es 


She loves 






She loves 


lift -a.n 


yn mer-cit 


It is that she 


oves 


W~ 


yu-«» er mert She will lovo 








«=»H' — i i i 


meryn -fa 


We love 






It is that we 1 


>ve 


1) \ t t ( <=» S y«-en er mert We shall love 




mer-lhtn 


You love 




meryn-then 


You love 




H 


It is that you 




I) ^> ^ <=> S yu-thmtr mert You will love 






They love 




nuryit-WH 


They love 




yi< mer-tm 


It is that the_\ 


'ove 


(j ^> P j i i <=> yu-ten it mrrt They will love 


Sedemef It (p. 


55) • 


Sedemkhkbef (p. 56) 


_ 


Yu-BF SEIIEMKF 


<p.5») 




Relative form (p. 66) 






Hove 






1 love 


4M2£ 


yn-y mer-y 


I am wont to 


ove 




merert-y That whKj)i 1 love 




uieier-elc 

iitevet'-'eth 


Thou lovest 


<=> <=> " ' 


merkher-ft,- \ 
merkher-eth ) 


Thou lovest 


4fc— 2— 


yn-al- ne**-«i '. 

J Thou art wool 
yu-rtA mrr-tlU ) 


to love 




merert-ek \ 

| That which thou lovest 
merert-tlh ) 






H 1 


9 ^ 




He loves 


4&^2«- 


yn-efmer-ef 


He is wont to 


love 


-ex. <=> _^ 


\nereri-r} Tluit which he loves 






She loves 


lip 




She loves 


4fcP2P 


yu-a mer-e* 


She is wont t 


love 




mererl-f» That which she love» 






We love 


*■=*■ ® — 


MerHer*<l 


We love 




yu-' « msf>* 


We arc wont 


o love 




mcr,Tt-c. That which we love 




merer-Hi*, 


You love 




mrrkhfr-then 


You love 




y«-<Ae it me.- 


Men You are wont 


to love 




mrrcrl-tlitr* That which you love 


nit 




They love 


Slnt, 


meriher-ten 


They love . 




yii-MH wier.s 


» They are won 


to love 




nemt-fM That which they love 


SKiiRUNcr (p. 


55) 


IV.CDO-FAKTICIVLE (p. 57) 


Passive (p. 66) 




PiMFIOOUi (p. 66) 




""■'"■'J 


I loved 




tnerkhuy 


I love 


2-** 




I am loved 






"■er Having loved 




,,„., , 

meni-rt/i J 

w 


• 

Thou lovedst 

He loved 
She loved 




vutrlhy 
»ury 


Thou lovest 
He loves 
She loves 
Wo love 


2«*- 
2-4«- 
2-iJ 

2-*~ 


1 

***** ) 
merta-,/ 


Thou art lov« 

He is loved 
She is loved 


1 




meiy Loved 
■jWI Heing loved 






We loved 






You love 


m'rtti-eu 


We are loved 




.lNVIKlTIVE (p. 6D) 





merrn-sm 


You lnveo 
They loved 




merthy ) 


They love 


2**Fn 

^P,~m 


mil wu 


You are lovet 
They are lev* 


1 




inert To love 
Cacsative (p. 68) 




luPEKATIV £ 


Love thou 




















-<=r- 


















K-mei t To cause to love 




mcrn 


Love ye 





















IRREGULAR. <=»^° erdyt, TO GIVE. (In this rtu — c is constantly c«o fob - . ) 



Sbdbmev I (p. 55) 


Sedkmtnef (p. 56) 


Yu 8EDBHBF (p. 58) 


Future (p. 68) 




dy-y 


I give 






'rdy-yn-y I give 




yu dy-y 


It is that [ 


give 


(j ^> ^ <=> S yu-y er trdyt I shall give 


a — 1 


</y-et | 
dyeth j 


Thou ivest 






erdy.yn-fk | 

j Thou givest 
erdy-yntth ) 




yu dyek \ 
yu dyeth J 


It is that ihou givest 


\\- 


a_i yn-<l- er trdyt 1 

VThou»iltgive 
»_» yu rl)i er erdyt J 


* — 1 


dyef 


He gives 






erdyyntf He gives 




yu dye/ 


It is that \ 


e gives 




a— a yu-ef er erdyt He will give 




dy-t» 


She gives 






errfy yu-es She gives 




yu 'lyu 


It is that 


le gives 


(j ^> |1 <=» S yu-M er erdyt She will give 






We give 






erdy-yn-tn We give 




yu dyeu 


It is that 






«=> 4_j yu-rn er erdyl We shall give 




dy-lhrn 


You give 






erdyyn-thtn You give 




yu dy-then 


-It is that 


ou give 




«=>Ij yu-(Aen er erdyt You will give 




dyten 


They give 




'It; 


«r</y-yn-»«n They give 




yu dy-eeu 


It is that 


Say give 


w: 


<=> a — a yu-jeii er erdyt They will give 


SbrbmbT II (p. 55) 


Sedemkbebef (p. 56) 


Yo-ir SBDEHEF (;j. 59) 




Hklative Fobm (p. 66) 


AA$ 


dtjdy-y 


I give 










yu-y dy-y 


1 am won 


to give 


AA^ 


dydyt-y That which 1 give 


AA- 
AA*= 


dydy-ek 
dydy-eth 


Thou s ivest 

g 










yu-ek dyek 
yU'tlh dy-eth 


| Thou art 


rent to give 


AA4. 
AA~ 


-iydyt-^i ) 

| That which thou givest 
dydyt-elk ) 


AA*- 


dydyej 


He gives 






Not known 




yu-ef dy-ef 


He is woi 


to give 


AA^ 


dydyt-ef That which he gives 


AAP 


dydye* 


She gives 








yu-es dy-es 


She is woit to give 


AA-f 1 


dydyt-et That which she gives 


aa,t; 


dydy-en 


We give 










yu-en dy-m 


We are wjnt to give 


AA-r 


™ ,(ydyl-en That which we give 


AArR 


dydytiten 


""""" 










yit'then dy-th 


II You are i 


ont to give 


A^a 55 dydyt-then That which you give 


AAPrr, 


dydyten 


They give 












They are 


font to give 


AA-f 1 


dydyt-teu That which they give 




SeDEMNEE (p. 


55) 


p 




PARTICIPLE (p. 57) 






66) 




Infinitive (p. 60) 




n-dyu-y 


I gave 


s_~3 




dyfrvy I give 




dy<u-y 


I am give 




-4- 


eriy< To give 






j Thon gavest 






dythy Thou givest 




dytn-ek \ 


Thou art 


iven 


Participles (p. 66) 




ndyn-eth 


A \ ( or 


V) 


cZyti (or </yy) He gives 




dytu-etk ) 




-A 


or ^ erdy (or i/y) Having given 
dy<fy Giving 






He gave 


«M 




iytty She gives 




dytu-ef 


He is give 




AA 






She gave 


-V 




rfynien We give 




dylu-et 


She is given 


<=» A M erdy Being given 




erdyn-en 


We gave 


-V 




dyltuni You give 




dytu-tn 


We are given 


AA^ 


dydyu Given 




■~ erdyn-tlten 


You gave 
They gave 


-fc 




dpi ) 

They give 

dylhy ) 




dylu-tlieu 
dytu-tea 


1 ou are g 
They are 


riven 






Imperative 
























Give (thou) 
























Give (ye) 





















By the same Author— 



ELEMENTARY COPTIC GRAMMAR. 
Quaritch, 5/- 

EGYPTIAN LEGENDS. 
John Murray, 2/- 



By W. M. Flinders Petrie 

ARTS & CRAFTS IN ANCIENT EGYPT. 
Foulis & Co. 6/- 

EASTERN EXPLORATION. 
Constable. 2/6 

EGYPT & ISRAEL. 
S.P.C.K. 3/6 

REVOLUTIONS OF CIVILISATION. 
Harper. 3/- 

SOURCES OF HUMAN HISTORY. 
S.P.C.K. 5/- 



UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA LIBRARY 
Los Angeles 

This book is DUE on the last date stamped below. 



ftP p 2 11993 



H JAN 2 3 19' 



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R£C LO-URL 
M&VXOIW^I 

fi£ HKi 01 BP* 

JAM 1 <s 2001 
L/GG Liuav- v 



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UC'DYRL APR 03 TO 



OCT 14 TO 



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